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Chapter 1: The Cell: A Microcosm of Life

Cells basic living, structural, and functional units of the body
Eukaryotic cells have a defined nucleus evolved from prokaryotic cells
____ is a necessity in cells. Specialization
8 Components of Typical Cells -plasma membrane -cytoplasmic matrix -mitochondrion -nucleus -endoplasmic reticulum -golgi apparatus -lysosomes -peroxisomes
Plasma membrane is composed of these 2 structures phospolipids proteins
The plasma membrane has ____ and _____ type of layers hydrophobic hydrophilic
Phospholipids combination of phosphoglycerideas & phosphingolipids
What gives the components of the plasma membrane their functions? proteins
What is the geometry of the plasma membrane? asymmetrical
What type of structures does the membrane contain? (ex. solid or not) fluid
What makes the plasma membrane different from other membranes? greater CHO and cholesterol content
In the plasma membrane, there is a ___ bilayer concenpt. lipid
What is the glycocalyx? it is the sugar coat on a cell that protects the cell and plasma membrane from bacteria
Glycoproteins important integral membrane proteins in the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane which plays a role in cell-cell interactions
2 types of membrane proteins integral peripheral
Integral membrane proteins in the lipid bilayer
Peripheral membrane proteins through entire membrane and stick out
Cytoplasmic Matrix cytoskeleton providing: -locomotion -transport -structural support
3 components of cytoskeleton -microtubules -microfilaments -intermediate filaments
What is the fluid that surrounds the cytoplasmic matrix? cytoplasm
Microtubules provide mechanical support for the cell to determine its shape
Microfilaments "assembled" or "disassembled" for cell locomotion, changes in cell shape, phagocytosis, etc
Intermediate filaments provide mechanical strength to cells that go thru more stress such as neurons, muscle cells, and epitheial cells
Is there communication between cells in the cytoplasmic matrix? yes, intracelluar
What does the cytoplasmic matrix transfer? DNA/ RNA
Structural arrangement of the cytoplasmic matrix influences these metabolic pathways glycolysis hexose monophosphate shunt (pentose phosphate pathway) glycogenesis and glycogenolysis fatty acid sythesis
Fatty acid synthesis production of nonessential, unsaturated fatty acids
Glycogenesis and glycogenolysis glycogen syntheis and the breakdown f glycogen
Hexose monophosphate pathway generates NADPH and pentoses
Glycolysis metabolic pathway that converts glucose into pyruvate. The free energy released used to form ATP and NADH
Role of mitochondrion energy production and oxygen use site
What surrounds the mitochondria? double membrane called the mitochondrial membrane
Mitochondrial membrane (outer & inner) outer: porous inner: selectively permeable site of electron transport chain
Mitochondria try to increase their surface area why? it increases the rate of reactions
Mitochrondrial matrix is the site of what? TCA cycle fatty oxidation synthesis
Mitochondrial matrix contains ____ so organelles can ____. DNA; divide
Mitochondrial DNA is _____ ONLY. maternal
All cells have ____, except _____. mitochondria; erythrocytes (need glycolysis)
Mitochondria have what? separate DNA so that they can create more or less of them based on needs of the cells
Nucleus largest organelle
Nucleus is surrounded by? nuclear envelope
Nucleus contains? DNA
Cell genome entire set of genetic information
Nucleoli condensed chromatin
Nucleus is the site of? DNA replication
In the nucleus, ____ synthesis occurs. protein; followed by transcription, translation, and elongation
Nucleus contains these acids nucleic acids
Nucleus holds these 2 genetic materials that are important to chromosomes DNA and RNA
Within the nucleus, macromolecules are formed from units of ____/_____. nucleotides/bases
Which nucleotides/ bases are found in both DNA and RNA? adenine, guanini, and cytocine (A, G, and C)
Which nucleotide/ base is found only in RNA? uracil (U)
Which nucleotide/base is found only in DNA? Thymine (T)
In DNA/ RNA, how do the nucleotides/ bases come together? by complementary base pairing
What are the base pairings? ex. g-C, A-U or T.
In the nucleus, cell replication occurs. What is this? DNA unravels and nucleotides are added to each strand to make 2 sets
In the nucleus, cell transcription occurs. What is this? mRNA created from sequence of one DNA strand (sense strand) use of genes (codes for specific protein) use of introns and exons
Genes code for a specific protein
Introns (transcription) intervening sequences that help from proteins
Exons no posttranscriptional processing helps to form protein
There are parts of the DNA that aren't ____. Coding
Describe the process of translation -mRNA codes fro amino acid sequence to from protein -mRNA is synthesized in nucleus, then moves to the RER -codons assist in this process by coding for amino acids with the 3 base sequences -tRNA brings amino acids to mRNA on ribosomes
Codons 3-base sequences that code for amino acids
How do different characteristics of amino acids affect codons? They form with the codons and perform different functions
After amino acids (AAs) are postioned, ____ bonds form between them. peptide
Elogation peptide bonds form in between the positioned amino acids.
Are all genes expressed in specialized cells of a given organ expressed? no! only a few
"Nonsense" codon signals end of protein (termination or stop codon)
Endoplasmic Reticulum network of membranous channels used to communicate from innermost part of cell to exterior
What are the types of ER? rough ER smooth ER sarcoplasmic retitulum
Rough ER (studded with ribosomes) protein syntheisis
Smooth ER lipid synthesis
Sarcoplasmic reticulum (in muscle) calcium ion pump
Golgi Apparatus protein trafficking and sorting
Golgi Apparatus is made up of? 4-8 cisternae (stacks)
What type of networks are at either end of the golgi apparatus? tubular; cis and trans network
Cis-Golgi Network entrance
Trans-Golgi network exit
What is the Golgi Apparatus connected to? ER by transport vesices
Lysosomes & Peroxisomes enzyme-filled organelles
Lysosomes cell's digestive system, it recycles parts of the cell that's not needed anymore
Peroxisomes site of oxidative catabolic reactions (digestion)
Lysosome functions phagocytosis autolysis bone resoption hormone secretion and regualtion
Peroxisome functions oxidize fatty acids to acetyl CoA amino acid catabolism detoxifying reactions
What are the 3 types of cellular proteins? -receptors -transport proteins -enzymes
Receptors (on the cell membrane) modify cell's response to environment
Transport proteins (through cell membrane) regulate flow in and out of cells
Enzymes catalysts (excite a reaction
Ligands molecular stimuli that attach to receptors
Types of receptors bind to ligand and convert it to internal signal serve as ion channels internalize stimulus intact -various responses when bonded or internalized
Example of internal chemical signal 3', 5' -cyclic AMP
Ion channel example receptor for acetylcholine
Internalization stimulus example insulin, triodothyronine
Transport proteins may act as ___ or ___. carriers or pumps
Transport proteins may provide ____ through which _____ diffuse. pores; molecules
What is the most studied ion pump? sodium
The sodium/ potassium pump provides how much energy to maintain ATPase? 30-40%
Catalytic Proteins (enzymes) how it functions depends on protein and prosthetic group or coenzyme -these also have specificity
Based on availability of substrate and free energy, most catalytic proteins are ____. reversible
Regulation of catalytic proteins -covalent modification through hormone stimulation -modulation of allosteric enzymes -enzyme induction
Allosteric those with another site
Enzyme induction changes in concentrations of inducible enzymes (down or up regulated at the transcriptional level)
Examples of enzyme types -oxidoreductases -transferases -hydrolases -lyases -isomerases -ligases
Oxidoreductases (enzyme type) reactions in which one compound is oxidized, another reduced (oxidation-reduction reaction)
Transferases functional group transferred from one substrate to another
Hydrolases hydrolysis of carbon bonds (breakdown of carbon molecules)
Lyases cleavage of C-C, C-S. and C-N bonds (no hydrolysis/ O-R)
Isomerases interconversion of optical or geometric isomers (glycolysis; interconverting sugars)
Ligases catalyze formation of C and other bonds (O, S, N, others) *protein synthesis makes new bonds
Clinical Applications of Cellular Enzymes -conditions for diagnostic suitability -enzyme's degree of organ/tissue specificity -steep concentration gradient of enzyme activity between cell and surroundings -enzyme must function in cytoplasm -enzyme must be stable
What happens when there is increased production of an enzyme? -malignant disease -results in tumor markers
Oncogenes mutated genes that encode abnormal, mitosis-signaling proteins that cause unchecked cell division
Apoptosis programmed cell death
What are potential mechanisms for apoptosis? intracellular stimuli -create DNA damage -release of cytochrome c extracellular stimuli -tumor necrosis facotr family of hormones or agonists oncosis (swelling of the cell
Apoptosis: intracellular stimuli create DNA damage
Apoptosis: extracellular stimuli tumor necrosis facotr family of hormones or agonists
Oncosis cellular swelling
Why does Apoptosis occur? To pthe spread of harmful effectsrevent
What is the major source of biological energy in cells? ATP
ATP is needed for? exertion anabolism active transport transfer of genetic info
Active transport involves? ion pumps
Where does biological energy come from? chemical reactions -macronutrients give energy -transferred from one form to another
What are the units of energy used? cal, kcal, J, kJ
What are the equivalents of calories to Joules and kilocalories to kiloJoules? 1 cal= 4.18 J 1 kcal= 4.18 kJ
What type of broad chemical reactions are used to produce biological energy? exothermic and endothermic
Activation Energy energy to raise reactants to transition state
Can chemical reactions be reversed? yes! most are reversible, but not all.
What role does high-energy phosphate have in cells? provides energy storage
What do coupled reactions do? help to transfer energy (ex. phosphorylation)
Phosphorylation adding phosphate to a reactions
What role do reduction potentials have? standard reduction potential- tendency of compound to donate and recieve electrons
Where is energy used from? from the bond
Nutrigenetics detecting gene variants within an indiviual
Nutrigenomics seeing how environmental factors have an effect on genes and their interactions to determine applications
Nutritional Epigenetics study of changes in gene expression that do not inviolve changes in the nucleotide sequence or DNA (ex. adding or subtracting a methyl group to see what happens to the DNA
Created by: starryeyes213