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Patho- CardioVasc

QuestionsAnswers
Where is the apex of the heart? Bottom of the heart
Where is the base of the heart? Top of the heart
What is the name of the covering of the heart? Pericardium or pericardial sac
What is the function of the fibrous layer of the pericardium? To protect the heart and to anchor the heart to the great vessels
What is the name of the serous membrane on the surface of the heart? Visceral layer or epicardium
What is the function of the serous membrane of the pericardium? Produces and maintains the serous fluid in the pericardial cavity
How much fluid is in the pericardial cavity? 30-50 ml can be anything from 10-50
What is the name of the upper chambers of the heart? Atria
What is the name of the lower chambers of the heart? Ventricles
What divides the right and left chambers of the heart? Atrial and ventricular septum
What is the function of the right side of the heart? Pump blood into the pulmonary circulation
What is the function of the left side of the heart? Pump blood into the systemic circulation
What is the name of the muscle of the heart? Myocardium
Which side of the heart is thicker and why? Left more work related to systemic circulation
Where are the atrioventricular valves located? Between the atria and ventricles
What are the names of the right and left AV valves? Tricuspid on the right and bicuspid or mitral on the left
What is the function of the AV valves? Prevent blood return back into the atria
What is the name of the vessel exiting from the right ventricle? The pulmonary trunk or pulmonary artery
What is the name of the vessel exiting from the left ventricle? The aorta
What is the function of the aortic and pulmonary valves? Prevent blood return into the ventricles
The right atrium receives blood from the? Systemic circulation and the heart muscle (coronary circulation)
The coronary sinus returns blood from the? Muscle of the heart (coronary circulation)
The left atrium receives blood from? Pulmonary circulation via the pulmonary vein
The pulmonary veins carry? Oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium
What are the chordae tendineae? The chordae Tendineae attach the cusps of the AV valves to the papillary muscles.
What are the papillary muscles? Extensions of the ventricular myocardium that attach to the chordae tendineae.
The pulmonary system is a _________pressure system. Low
The systemic system is a __________ pressure system. High
The venous system is a ____________pressure _____________ volume system. Low pressure, High volume
The arterial system is a ______________pressure ___________ volume system. High pressure, Low volume
Oxygen rich blood leaves the aorta and enters the two coronary arteries, the _______ ____ ________ arteries. Left and right coronary
The right coronary artery branches off into the _____________________ Posterior descending and marginal branches
The left coronary artery branches into the ________ artery and the ______________. Circumflex and left anterior descending arteries
What is the epicardium? Very thin serous layer covering the surface of the heart
What is the myocardium? Muscle of the heart
What is the endocardium? Internal lining of the heart
Do arteries or veins have thicker walls? arteries
What is attached to the free-edges of the cusps of the tricuspid valve and mitral valves? Chordae tendineae
The chordae tendineae attached to the myocardium at modified sites called __________muscle. papillary
What prevents the cusps from moving into the atrium? The CT/PM
What is valve prolapse? Displacement of the valve into the atria
Which valve is most likely to prolapsed? Mitral
Do the right and left ventricles normally pump the same volume of blood? yes
What is an electrocardiogram? A recording of the electrical activity of the heart
How many leads are normally used in a diagnostic ECG/EKG? 12
Where is the sinoatrial node located? Right atrial myocardium
What is the function of the SA node? Pacemaker of the heart
What is a cardiac cycle? One heart beat or one filling and ejection phase of the heart
What depolarizes after the SA node initiates an impulse? Atrial myocardium
What results from atrial depolarization? Atrial contraction (systole)
Where is the atrioventricular (AV) node located? Inferior portion of the interatrial septum
When does the AV node depolarize? Along with the last portion of the atrial myocardium
From the AV node list in sequence the structures that depolarize. Bundle of His, Bundle branches, purkinje fibers ventricular myocardium
What is the result of the depolarization of the ventricular myocardium? Ventricular systole
When does the P wave begin and what does it represent? Begins with depolarization of the sa node and represents depolarization of the atrial myocardium
What does the QRS complex represent? Depolarization of the ventricular myocardium
What does the T wave represent? Ventricular repolarization
What is the P-R interval? Time beginning with depolarization of the sa node to the beginning of ventricular depolarization
What is the Q-T interval? Time from the beginning of ventricular depolarization through repolarization
What is the S-T segment? Time when the ventricles are completely depolarized and early repolarization
What characterizes a normal sinus rhythm? Three sequential waves P QRS T in their normal intervals and shapes with arrange of 60 to 100 bpm
The normal heart rate is ______ to _______beats per minute. On average that is __________BPM. 60 to 100, 75
In the interval following the T wave and prior to the initiation of the next cardiac cycle that isoelectric period is called the ______________ period. resting
Atrial depolarization , shown on the ECG by the ________ wave, results in ____ ________________ P atrial contraction
The QRS complex represents the _____________ of the ventricles and results in ______________ _____________________ Depolarization, Ventricular contraction
The pacemaker/SA node has the property of ________________, but the rate is impacted by the _________________. Automaticity, ANS
The Bundle of His, the bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers have the property of _____________. Conductivity
Cardiac arrhythmias are classified by ________________ and _________________. Location and activity
The cardiac muscle has the property of _______________________. Excitability
What is cardiac output? Volume of blood ejected by each ventricle in one minute
How is cardiac output calculated? Stroke volume X HR
What is stroke volume? Volume of blood ejected by each ventricle by a single cardiac cycle or heart beat
How is stroke volume calculated? Subtracting end systolic volume from end diastolic volume
What is end diastolic volume? Volume of blood in each ventricle at the end of its relaxation and filling phase
What is end systolic volume? The Volume of blood remaining in each ventricle at the end of its contraction phase
What 2 factors affect the end diastolic volume and how? Filling time and venous return
The slower the heart rate the longer the filling time and the greater volume returns Venous return is affected by blood pressure, vascular resistance, skeletal muscle pumping and heart rate
What is preload? A measure of the volume filling the ventricles prior to contraction
According to ______________ law of the heart ____________ blood is ejected when the myocardium is stretched. Starling more
What is contractility? The intrinsic ability of the heart muscle to squeeze
What are 3 factors that affect contractility? SNS, hormones (epinephrine), electrolyte balance
What is afterload? The tension the ventricles must produce to overcome the resistance in the vessels
What determines afterload? The amount of resistance in the vessels
The greater the pressure in the exiting vessels of the ventricles, the ____________the afterload. higher
What is the primary factor that influences afterload? Increased resistance of circulation
Heart rate is primarily controlled by the ____________________________________ The ANS
What is the function of the Parasympathetic nervous system? Decrease blood pressure and heart rate
What is the function of the sympathetic nervous system? Increase blood pressure and heart rate
The parasympathetic system innervates the heart via the _______________________________. Vagus
What impacts the chemoreceptors? Oxygen and CO2 (hypoxia and hypercapnea)
What impacts the baroreceptors? Pressure
What impacts the stretch receptors? Stretch on the ventricles
In addition to the ANS, other factors that influence heart rate are______________________ Hormone levels (epi, thryoxine etc) and electrolyte balance
What is the RAAS? Renin angiotensin aldosterone system
How does the RAAS influence blood pressure and perfusion? Vasoconstriction, salt and water retention
What are the 4 compensatory mechanisms of the body? Starling law, RAAS, SNS, ventricular hypertrophy
Bradycardia is________________________ Heart rate less than 60
Tachycardia is________________________ Heart rate great than 100
What is laminar flow? Smooth layered flow in the vessels
What is turbulent flow? Chaotic flow in the vessels causing more friction
What electrolytes affect the action potentials? Ca, K, Na
What is systole? Ventricular contraction
What is diastole? Ventricular filling
__________ is the measure of preload. CVP
Ejection fraction is______________________. % of blood ejected with each cardiac cycle
Mean arterial pressure is__________________, and is calculated by______________________________. The “average” pressure in the systemic arterial system, SBP + 2(DBP)/3
Autoregulation is_________________________. Intrinsic ability of the organs of the body to regulate blood flow
Which organs have the best autoregulation? Which the least? Brain skin
What is the name of the central region of the thorax? Mediastinum
Created by: tbauer20