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chap 6

ch 6Plate Techtonics

inner core a ball of hot, solid metals
outer core a layer of liquid metals that surrounds the inner core
mantle Earth's thicest layer, measuring nearly 2900 kilometers
mantle made of hot rock that is less dense than the metallic core
crust thin layer of cool rock
crust surounds the Earth like a shell
inner core and outer core makes up the core of the Earth
lithosphere earth's crust and the very top of the mantle together form this
asthenosphere what the lithosphere sits on top of
asthenosphere a layer of hotter, softer rock in the upper mantle
tectonic plates what the lithosphere is broken into; includes many large and small slabs
continental drift proposed by Wegener; hypothesis that says the Earth's continents were once joined in a single landmass and gradually moved or drifted apart
fossils, climate, and geology evidence for the continental drift theory
Pangea comes from the Greek word, "all lands"
Pangea the huge supercontinent
mod ocean ridges huge underwater montain ranges
sea floor spreading, age of the sea floor, and ocean trenches evidence that the sea floor is spreading
convection energy transfer by the movement of a material
convection current a motion that transfers heat energy in a material
theory of plate tectonics what geologist developed using a combination of their knowledge of Earth's plates, the sea floor, and the asthenosphere
divergent boundary occurs where plates move apart
convergent boundary occurs when plates push together
transform boundary occurs where plates scrape past each other
plate boundary where the edges of two plates meet
rift valley a gap developed as ridges continue to widen
magnetic reversal the switch in direction of the Earth's magnetic poles; the north pole becomes the south pole and the south pole becomes the north pole
hot spots places where heated rock rises in plumes or thin columns from the mantle
subduction a process in which one plate is led under another
continental-continental collision occurs where two plates carrying continental crust push together
continental-continental collision becuase both crusts are the same density, neither plate can sink beneath the other
oceanic-oceanic subduction occurs where one plate with ocean crust sinks or subducts under another plate with oceanic crust
oceanic-oceanic subduction the older plate sinks because it is colder and denseer than the younger plate
deep ocean trenches like deep canyons that form in the oean floor as a plate sinks
Island arcs chains of volcanic islands tht form on the top plate, parallel to a deep ocean trench
oceanic-continental subduction ocurs when ocean crust sinks under continental crust
oceanic-continental subduction oceanic crust sinks becuase it is colder and denser than the continental curst
deep ocean trenches occur mostly in the Pacific Ocean and the crust movement results in underwater earthquakes
coastal mountains as the oceanic crust sinks under a continent, the continental crust buckles to form a range of mountains
Created by: fhershey