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Praxis II 0543

Special Education Praxis II test (0543)

QuestionAnswer
The teacher provides the information and content to support the learning process. Explicit Instruction
The focus is on the student as an active and involved learner who constructs knowledge by using previously learned information Implicit Instruction
Placement of students in educational activities according to performance and academic achievement levels. Ability Grouping
An adjustment that enables a student to participate in educational activities. Accommodations
A measure of the engagement of the learner in tasks and activities. Active student response
A change made to the environment or curriculum. Adaptation
Instruction using real-world projects and activities to allow students to discover and explore in a more relevant manner. Authentic Learning
The breaking down of a task into component parts so a student finishes the task by starting with the first step in the sequence and performing each component progressively until the task is completed. Chained Response
A technique in which student performance is reinforced so the student will continue to perform more complex tasks in the sequence. Chaining
Oral response of students (in unison) to a question or problem presented by the teacher. Choral Responding
A strategy that allows a student to remember and organize large amounts of information. Chunking
The use of semantic and syntactic clues to aid in completing sentences. Cloze Procedure
The ability for student to demonstrate concept knowledge by applying the information to the other settings without prompts from teacher. Concept Generalization
Techniques used to aid in the organization and delivery of curriculum such as guided notes, graphic organizers, mnemonics, and visual displays. Content Enhancements
A strategy for helping a student and eventually fading out the support as he gains mastery. Contingent Teaching
Classroom is divided into groups to work together to complete a task or participate in an activity. Cooperative Learning
Provides assistance to ensure adequate support of instruction Cues and Prompts
Individualizing instruction to develop strengths and remediate weaknesses. Diagnostic-prescriptive method
To address the varying abilities, strengths, and needs of learners and their styles of learning by imposing a choice of learning activity, tasks that suit the learning styles, student groupings, authentic lessons, and problem based activities. Differentiated Instruction
A systematic approach of teaching with specific goals, active learner engagement, and positive reinforcement for student performance (synonymous with explicit instructions) Direct Instruction
Checking on student achievement during a period for a specific opportunity to perform and recording the response. Direct Measure
Students engage in active learning with lessons designed and overseen by the teacher but managed by students. Facilitated groups
A measure that encourages practice of skills to improve the accuracy and rate of use. Fluency building
The ability to use skills learned across various settings. Generalization
A visual-spatial organization of information to help students understand presented concepts. Graphic Organizer
providing opportunities to gain knowledge by offering cues, prompts, or added sequential information. guided practice
Specific areas or activities that enhance the curricular content and allow independent or small group instruction. learning centers
An approach that teaches students how to learn and remember particular content. learning strategy
a procedure that provides cues and prompts, while gradually removing them so students can perform and respond independently. mediated scaffolding
a strategy that enhances memory through key words, acronyms, or acrostics. mnemonics
a method that helps make connections between the material to be learned and the process to learn it by acting out sequences while students observe and then imitate the task. modeling
changing the content, material, or delivery of instruction. modification
the nine areas of learning that are addressed in classroom instruction linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, and existential. multiple intelligence strategies
procedures that involve activities interesting to students with naturally occurring consequences. naturalistic teaching
under the guidance of a teacher, a non-disabled student with competencies in a particular area works with a student with a disability who needs assistance to enhance an area of study. peer tutoring
an approach that identifies the skills to be taught and uses direct daily measure of the student's performance to acquire the skills. precision teaching
a technique in which a visual, auditory, or tactile cue is presented to facilitate the completion of a task or to perform a behavior. prompting
a program technique to teach students to overcome an exceptionality through training and education remediation
continual work on a specific skill or content concept to help build rote memory skills repetition
a method that allows all students to answer simultaneously by using signs, cards, or items held up to demonstrate responses. response cards
applying stages to learning content and tasks by first observing the student to see what she can do and then helping her understand the how and why until she can perform herself (direct instruction, tutoring, modeling, independence) scaffolding
repetition and practice of new skills until the learner performs without cues and prompts skill drill
a planned, sequential instruction to show similarities and differences between acquired and new knowledge. strategic instruction
providing positive reinforcement and confirmation to improve learning. systematic feedback
A strategy in which the goals are broken into smaller steps and sequences while keeping the learner's pace in focus. task analysis
a procedure that improves fluency of new skills through time limits time trial
providing instructional prompts to aid in correct responses. transfer of stimulus control
the concept that everything in the environment, in learning and in products, should be accessible to everyone. Universal Design.
Recommended for students who are gifted or talented is a ___________ curriculum that is responsive to the needs of these students, based on their individual strengths, and allows them opportunity to use their exceptional abilities. Differentiated
Strategies for acceleration for GT students: Self-paced instruction, compacting or telescoping the curriculum, mentoring programs, tiered lessons, summer programs, special focus courses, ability grouping, advanced placement courses, extracurricular programs and skipping grade levels.
Two distinct methods of providing instruction to diverse students and these are used for various student groups depending on the functioning level and the subject area: explicit instruction and implicit instruction
Students should be assessed in study skill areas so the most appropriate strategies for study skills instruction are implemented. Topics for study skills instruction include: reading, listening, note taking, outlining, report writing, oral presentation, graphic aids, test taking, library use, time management, and behavior self-management.
Students in secondary education settings, study skills instruction include: maintaining a schedule, learning to ask questions, skimming for information, outlining a chapter, using mnemonics, and paraphrasing.
Students needing focused instruction on social skills are in the following exceptionalities: autism, emotional disabilities, gifted-talented, hearing and vision impairments, learning disabilities, and mental retardation.
The ability of the individual to maintain control of one's self and to generalize skills learned across various settings. Self-management
Type of instruction that helps students learn to generalize skills more quickly, allows for social interactions, permits more flexible involvement with the teacher, helps students learn from other peers. Small group instruction
The independent living skills considered important for self-care, social circumstances, employment, vocational situations, and recreational activities. functional skills
focuses on basic educational concepts that may be useful in daily life, such as basic reading using survival sight words, basic math involving money and time, basic writing like name, address and phone number. Functional academics
emphasizes the skills necessary to perform adequately in the community and is most often used with students who have mental retardation, autism, and other moderate to severe conditions. functional curriculum
the skills used to make a basic need or desire known. functional language
the level of communication and language that a person needs to live independently in the community. functional literacy
Steps in the assessment process Pre-referral, screening, referral, evaluation and identification, instructional program planning, placement, review and evaluation
The work under the supervision of a certified teacher, help the teacher by providing more direct services and additional instructional opportunities on a regular basis, and have a wide range of duties and responsibilities. paraprofessionals
The traits a paraprofessional should have: flexibility, dependability, motivation, tolerance, patience, cooperativeness, resourcefulness, and positiveness.
Special education teacher role: to manage the IEP team, implement the IEP, provide accommodations to general education, and support the student and other teachers.
General education teacher role: Instruct students in the general education curriculum according to district standards and state requirements, while implementing accommodations, modifications, or adaptations for exceptional students.
Specific duties of a special education teacher: conduct assessments, plan for specifically designed instructions, implement instruction & accommodations, monitor student progress, collaborate, consult and confer with team members, schedule and run IEP meetings, conduct transition assessments&create ITP
Specific duties of a special education teacher (continued): Train staff&students in advocacy, communicate w/parents, facilitate programs&activities, supervise paraprofessionals, manage behavior assessments&plans, participate in staff development&workshops, join prof.org.&attend conferences,keep current on research
A designed program that integrates the needs of the individual student with the environment. Behavior Management Strategies
Students in special education are provided behavior management tools according to their ______ and ______. Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) and Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)
Strategies to help individualize behavior management techniques: make environment safe&comfortable, involve students in creating rules, avoid power struggles&confrontations, implement&track behavior plans, develop expectations for appropriate behaviors, use immediate feedback&consistent reinforcements.
Inappropriate behavior (aggressive or disruptive) considered more damaging and serious than other behaviors. acting out behavior
method of behavior scrutiny to determine how and why a student responds to certain events, situations, or the environment and allows for a training component of rewards and reinforcements to help the student learn the target behavior. applied behavior analysis (ABA)
public school option that may be utilized when a student cant function in the traditional public school system due to uncontrollable behaviors or due to a disruption that caused a suspension or expulsion. alternative school placement
stimulus used in behavior management and behavior modification that occurs prior to the behavior and establishes the reason for the behavior. antecedent
strategies or actions used to extinguish, change, or redirect an inappropriate behavior, three types are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and aversive reinforcement. behavior intervention
an evaluation tool that lists specific observable behaviors to assess the severity, frequency, and types of exhibited behaviors completed by staff, parents, or student. behavior rating scales
stimulus that follows a behavior action used in behavior management or behavior modifications to increase or decrease the behavior. consequences
written agreement between the student and the teacher that outlines the expected performance and the consequences or reinforcers used. contingency contract
strategy in which the function or task is broken down into steps that are rewarded immediately in trial by trial basis. discrete trial training
team review of the relationship between a student's inappropriate behavior and the disability, required under IDEIA when a student violates a code of conduct. manifestation determination
use of imitation to set in place the desired behaviors. modeling
used in behavior modification in which the student is motivated to use a desired behavior in order to avoid a negative consequence. negative reinforcement
when a behavior continues repeatedly beyond the typical endpoint and the student demonstrates difficulty switching tasks. perseveration
used in behavior modification in which the student is motivated to use a desired behavior because of the reward to be obtained. positive reinforcement
application of a learned behavior or skill to another setting. response generalization
the behavior for intervention, most often to be extinguished or changed, although it may be a positive behavior that should be used in other school activities. target behavior
12 disability categories suggested in federal law for students 6-21 years of age autism, deaf-blindness, emotional disturbance/behavior disorder, hearing impairment, mental retardation, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairment, OHI, SLD, SLI, TBI, visual impairment.
the systematic use of sounds, signs, or written symbols for the purpose of communication or expression. Language
Ability to understand and comprehend information that is presented. Receptive language
Ability to communicate thoughts, feelings, and ideas through words, gestures, sign systems, assistive devices, and so on. Expressive language
using movements of the mouth area to make speech sounds. Articulation
Knowledge of successful and appropriate language use, such as in conversation. Pragmatics
The meaning that language communicates; it governs vocabulary development. Semantics
A system of combining words into sentences with rules that govern how words work together in phrases, clauses, and sentences. Syntax
The purpose of IDEIA is identified in 4 key statements ensure kids w/disabilities guarantee a FAPE;assist states in establish early interv.srvs 4infants&toddlers w/disabilities; ensure educators&parents have the tools to improve ed. 4all kids w/disabilities;assess the effective of ed.4kids w/disabilities.
6 major principles of IDEIA 0 reject; protection in the evaluation process; FAPE; LRE; Due process procedures (procedural safeguards); Parent & student participation (shared decision making)
When IDEA-1997 was reauthorized to IDEIA-2004, all major provisions and components were still in tact but some changes were added that include the following: Paperwork reduction; short term objectives & benchmarks eliminated from IEP's; Implementation of comprehensive & multiyear (3yrs) IEP's; focus on highly qualified teachers to align IDEA with NCLB
IDEIA Part B focuses on the following: students w/dis 3-21;ed.programs in public school settings;educators, staff&other school professionals providing srvcs;yrly evals&an annual review of students program; participation in transition srvcs from partC;IEP that describes the ind. students needs.
IDEIA Part C focuses on the following: students w/dis. birth-3 yrs; family&child srvcs in natural environ (home);srvc or case manager to coordinate srvcs; evals 2x per yr w/reg reviews; participation in the transition srvcs to part B; IFSP to describe the childs&families needs.
Though they are still a form of Special Education but are no longer included in the federal special education laws. Separate laws, funding & requirements are established. They require mod&accom to the gen ed. curriculum, as well as for inst. activities. Gifted and Talented students
Based on the segregation of students according to race, it was tried at the Supreme Court who ordered that education must be on equal terms for all children. Brown vs. Board of Education 1954
Determined the tracking system for reg. & special ed. students based on intelligence scores was discriminatorily unconstitutional for some populations of students and could not be used. Hobson vs. Hanses 1967
Determined that financial problems cannot be a reason for the lack of appropriate programs to children with disabilities. Mills vs. Board of Education 1972
Established the right for all children with mental retardation to a free public education. Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens vs. the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 1972
Ordered schools to provide extended school year services for students with disabilities who may regress over long periods without attending formal school programs. Armstrong vs. Kline 1979
Rules that IQ tests could not be used as the primary or sole basis of placing students in special programs. Larry P. Vs. Riles 1979
Upheld that each child with a disability has the right to an individualized program and supportive services deemed appropriate and necessary. Board of Education of the Hudson School District Vs. Rowley 1982
Ruled that the training and education for a student with multiple disabilities required in private residential placement would be supported through district funds. Abrahamson Vs. Hershman 1983
Ruled homebound instruction for a student with multiple health problems did not comply with the LRE and required the student be placed in a class with non-disabled children & receive the necessary related medical services. Department of Education vs. Katherine D. 1984
Forced the school to provide non-physician required medical services to allow a physically impaired student to attend school. Irving Independent School District vs. Tatro 1984
Ruled that students with disabilities may not be excluded for misbehavior that is disability related, but services could cease if the behavior was not related to the disability. Honig Vs. Doe 1988
Upheld that all children with disabilities must be provided a free and appropriate public education without exception. Timothy Vs. Rochester School District
Determined that a student in a parochial school should be provided the assistance of a related service pertaining to the disability and that these findings did not violate the constitution of the separation of church and state. Zobrest Vs. Catalina School District 1993
Ruled to support a family preference to educate a child with mental retardation in the general education classroom. Oberti Vs. Board of Education 1993
Affirmed that public schools are not obligated to provide special education services if parents choose to place their child in a private school. Foley Vs. Special School District of St. Louis County 1998
Ruled that medical services necessary to a student with a disability to access and benefit from special education must be provided by the school as long as the service does not require a physician. Cedar Rapids Vs. Garrett F. 1999
A philosophy that surmises students with exceptional needs should be placed in classrooms along with students who are non-disabled so they receive the general education curriculum instruction with supportive services. Inclusion
Team members working together to enhance the educational programs to exceptional students, since they all contribute expertise to implement and support an appropriate program. Collaborative teaming
One part of the collaborative teaming that includes cmcn&coop. so student srvs are ensured delivery.Professionals may not directly share their expertise, information, or ideas with one another, but they do provide updates on the progress of the student. Coordination
Part of collaborative teaming in which professionals work with one another by directly cmcn and sharing expertise to improve services to students. Teachers and other professionals share strategies and methods to help the student access the ed. program. Consultation
Part of collaborative teaming used effectively for inclusion settings.2 or more teachers work together to plan activities, deliver inst., & assess students, additional supports are provided to all students in the classroom thereby improving achievement. Co-teaching
3 team models in schools that are critical to the effectiveness and implementation of the special education process Multidisciplinary team, interdisciplinary team, transdiciplinary team
prof w/defined roles, working ind of 1 another. may promote fragmentation of student programs.They conduct separate assess, deliver srvcs ind of others, work w/families apart from of other prof.may exhibit lack of cmcn or understanding of students needs. Multidisciplinary team
Members conduct ind assess,work to promote cmcn&collab. More formal cmcn efforts by meet 2gether 2 share info&develop interv.&strategies 2 enhance student ed. success. Members implement their portion of program while remain in contact w/other members. Interdisciplinary team
Team model demonstrates coord&invol;difficult 2achieve this status due 2schedules&#s of prof.Delivers srvs in an integrated approach across disciplines, to include assess, share info, program devel&implement interv, while include fmly at all stages.RECOM Transdisciplinary team
Created by: Gemma Badon-Mouton Gemma Badon-Mouton on 2012-03-05



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