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TExES ESL 154

Study material for TExES 154 Supp. Certification

QuestionAnswer
What is lexical application academic application
What is competency 001 fundamental language concepts and knows the structure and conventions of the English language.
What are fundamental English language concepts basic English rules
What are conventions of English Generally accepted usage
ELLs must first do what learn the fundamental English language concepts, know the structure of the English language, know the conventions of English
To find the ELLs proficiency level the teacher must informally assess the student's prior knowledge and skills through simple oral discourse
What is competency 002 the processes of L1 and L2 acquisition and the interrelatedness of L1 and L2 development
What is competency 003 ESL teaching methods and uses this knowledge to plan and implement effective, developmentally appropriate instruction
What is competency 004 how to promote students' communicative language development in English
what is competency 005 how to promote student's literacy development in English
what is competency 006 how to promote student's content area learning, academic-language development, and achievement across the curriculum
What is competency 007 formal and informal assessment procedures and instruments used in ESL programs and uses assessment results to plan and adapt instruction
What is competency 008 the foundations of ESL education and types of ESL programs
What is competency 009 factors that affect ESL students' learning and implements strategies for creating an effective multicultural and multilingual learning environment
What is competency 010 how to serve as an advocate for ESL students and facilitate family and community involvement in their education
What is competency 011 the importance of oral language knows the developmental processes of oral language, and provides learners with varied opportunities to develop listening and speaking skills
What is competency 012 phonological and phonemic awareness and employs a variety of approaches to help children develop phonological and phonemic awareness
What is competency 014 the importance of the alphabetic principle for reading English and provides instruction that helps children understand the relationship between printed and spoken words
What is competency 015 the importance of word analysis and decoding for reading and provides many opportunities for children to improve their word analysis and decoding abilities
What is competency 016 the importance of fluency for reading comprehension and provides many opportunities for children to improve their reading fluency
What is competency 017 importance of reading for understanding, knows the components of comprehension, and teaches children strategies for improving their comprehension
What is competency 018 the importance of research and comprehension skills to children's academic success and provides children with instruction that promotes their acquisition and effective use of these skills in the content areas
What is competency 019 the conventions of writing in English and provides instruction that helps children develop profiency in using writing conventions
What is competency 020 That writing to communicate is a development process and provides instruction that promotes children's competence in written communication
What is competency 021 the basic principles in literacy assessment and uses a variety of assessments to guide literacy instruction
At the end of Pre-K ESL... Communication and literacy begin Interact with responsive adults and peers Develop listening comprehension, phonological awareness, functions of print, motivation to read, appreciation for literacy, print awareness, letter knowledge
At the end of Kinder. ESL... increased oral language, begin to read and write, extend vocab and conceptual knowledge, follow directions, discuss word meaning, express complete thoughts, segment and identify sounds in spoken language
At the end of 1st grade... become independent readers and writers, books heard intro new vocab, develop print with spoken language, decode words, demonstrate comprehension, use subjects and vers and write complete sentences
At the end of 2nd grade... use references to build word meaning and pronunciation, comprehension and fluency in reading and writing progress, revise and edit writing, use appropriate capitalization and punctuation, use singular and plural nouns, adjust verbs for agreement
At the end of 3rd grade.. read grade level material fluently with comprehension, use root words prefixes suffixes and derivational endings to recognize words, support ideas by referencing, write with contractions and homonyms
At the end of 4th grade... become critical listeners and analyze a speaker's intent, adapt spoken language to audience, identify and followed varied text structures, use visual media and compare and contrast visual media to print, use adjectives adverb prep phrases, good spellers
At the end of 5th grade... identify persuasive techniques, judge logic and internal consistency, use literary devices such as suspense, produce error free composition
At the end of 6th grade... Takes notes during oral presentations, evaluate purposes/effects of media
The nativist theory is language is acquired by because we are internally wired with the ability and begin to speak as soon as we are exposed to language.
The behaviorist theory is language is learned by reinforcements by caregivers
Social cognitive and social cultural theory is learn language through continuous social interaction and adult and peer modeling
When a student is adding "ed" to words too much this is called Overgeneralization
When the new language unconsciously and automatically comes to the learner this ex. stop sign is called Language acquistion
When a learner studies the language to learn it this is called learned knowledge
These programs seek to override anxiety factors accelerated language programs
what are some examples of accelerated language programs play games, sing songs
Allows students to wait a short time to participate in english, this may last for several months silent period
The teacher considers the student's ability level to comprehend input and adds one level above input hypothesis
The input hypothesis uses the zone of proximety plus one level
what the learner can actually understand what is presented to them in all discourse comprehensive input
What is linguistic instruction include interaction with english speaking errors, regroup students often so they interact with wide range of different levels of ELLs or native speakers
What is sheltered english used to make academic content instruction in English understandable to ESL studetns, teacher combines cognitively challenging instruction with english and focus on social development, teachers use physical and visual aids
What is reciprocal teaching takes place in form of dialogue between teachers and students using segments of text structured by summarizing, questions generating, clarifying, and predicting, teacher and students take turns assuming roles
What is audiolingual new materials in form of dialogue
What is communicative approach (functional approach) language is acquired through exposure to meaningful and understandable messages rather than foraml study of frammer and vocab
What is community langauge learning (participating approach) great for older learners who are afraid of looking foolish, teacher a language counselor student a client, students define their needs based on their real world lives
What is cooperative learning groups hetergenous group varying in levels
What is language experience approach (LEA) student dictates as the teacher writes down
What is the natural approach combines acquisition and formal learning as a means of facilitating language development in adults
What is suggestopedia teachers use visualizations, games, play, taking on a persona, relaxation, music, room decorations
What is the total physical response (TPR) teacher assesses understanding by the learner's physical respnse to the teacher's directions
What are the factors that affect ESL student's reading comprehension vocab text structures (cultural references, prior knowledge)
How can teachers help with the factors that affect the ESL student's reading comprehension establishing a purpose for reading and listening, retelling and acting out the story, helping learners to make inferences
The ESL teacher should be working on developing CALPS, engaging critical thinking, providing cooperative group work, listening critically to interp and evaluate, use multi types of strategies, aware that cognitive learning skills, aware that cognitive learning skills transfer
What are some instructional delivery strategies pre-teaching key vocab, applying familar concepts from students cultural backgrounds, applying prior learning experiences to new learners, using hands on media and technology
What level is this student??? little ability to understand english in simple conversations, slowing of speech, uses gestures, struggles with english vocab, remains silent when not comprehending, expands vocab through listening opportunities Beginning Level
What level is this student? Increase in accuracy and fluency, comprehend simple and high frequency spoken English, still require ESL techniques in unfamiliar topics, may ask speaker to slow down repeat or rephrase Intermediate Level
What level is this student? Can comprehend grade level spoken English, able to create clarify critique and evaluate ideas and responses, need processing time and esl techniques to support and comprehend some details and non modified info Advanced Level
What level is this student? understand with very minimal support and with little need for processing time or ESL support, needs help with complex academics and in specialized language, comparable to native speakers in social and instructional contexts Advanced High Level
This requires....ELLs in grades K-12 must be tested in English language proficiency annually in reading, writing, and speaking No Child Left Behind ACT
This charts student's achievement Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System (TELPAS)
This recommends ELLs identification, placement, and exit in bilingual/ESL programs Language Proficiency Assessment Committe (LPAC)
How many times does the LPAC meet for each student once per year
How many ELLs are required for an ESL program 20 or more students at one grade level in a district
Each student must return what from home within 4 weeks a home language survey that the parents must mark English at not their home language
Who is offered placement in the ESL program Any student having dominance in any other language besides English
Do all students in the ESL require parental permission Yes
What do students have to do to exit the ESL/bilingual program they must pass the ELA portion of the STAAR and have parental permission to exit
After existing the ESL/Bilingual program what happens the LPAC follows the student for 2 years
What is the Nationality Act of 1906 passed to make sure english would be learned, later judged unconstituational
What provided funds for bilingual/ESL programs Bilingual Education Act 1968
What established rules to determine when districts must implement ESL/bilingual programs Lau vs. Nichols Act 1974
What program has students leaving at the earliest possible time, seen as remedial, support the ELL for 1-4 years Early Exit
What program is usually recommended and enriches the L1 Late Exit
What program has the ESL teacher for all subjects, pull out-students taken out of regular classrooms for ESL instruction in ELa Self contained
What program supports newly arrived immigrants and is short termed Newcomer center
What programs has the L1 rarely used, only used to clarify English instruction Immersion
What program is bilingual intro speaking one language One way dual language
What program uses native English speakers and ELLs placed together with 1/2 the day in L1 and 1/2 in L2, seen as very promising Dual language
What program maximizes lessons taught in English using ESL techniques Structured English Immersion
What program has ELLs placed in regular classrooms with little or no instructional modifications Submersion
Language is systematic meaning it has rules
Language is generative meaning it changes, is flexible, accepts new words all the time
Phonology is the system of sounds
Allophones are letters or combinations of letters that make the same sound...ex.. c and k
Morphology is the level of words
Semantics is the meaning, can refer to simple understanding of what a word means
Cognates are words related through the same origin...latin roots for english/spanish. the closer the language the more likely there will be cognates
Syntax is the sentence structure, grammer- how a word functions in a sentence...blessed can be a verb or an adjective
Pragmatics is the use of language in social context
Lexicon refers to one's vocabulary or dictionary
Orthography is a writing system, an alphabet
I will go a la casa de mi tia is code switching
I want a taco is language borrowing
Linguistic Interference from native language if a sound/letter/structure does not exist in your native language, it is the hardest thing to hear/learn
Language variety which is determined neither horizontally nor vertically but according to its communicative functions. Includes oral and written mediums. Most speakers of any given language speak more than one register of a language registers
similar to the way children acquire their native language, subconscious process, informal acquisition
explicit presentation of rules and grammar, classroom instruction, formal learning
ESL students acquire language by comprehending what is being communicated the input hypothesis
anxiety, good self image, and interest and motivation are are elements of the affective filter hypothesis
There are affective elements that seem to affect the acquisition of language anxiety- a lower level of anxiety is desired good self image- avoid corrections and embarrassing situations for the student Interest and motivation-provide meaningful activities based on the student's motivation and cultural background
This acquirers not learners internalize grammatical structures in a predictable order the natural order hypothesis
the natural order hypothesis has certain grammatical structures or morphemes are acquired before others in first language acquisition, and a similar natural order is found in second language acquisition
Those who are acquiring language begin a process of monitoring their language through conscious corrections is the.. The Monitor Hypothesis
The monitor hypothesis has errors and error correction are both signs of developmental processes (growth)
Students should not be forced to communicate is part of the silent period
The silent period is students should be allowed to build up linguistic competence by active listening via the comprehensive input
BICS Basic, Interpersonal, Communication, and Skills
CALP Cognitive, Academic, Language, and Proficiency
According to Cummins students develop basic interpersonal communication skills approximately within three years after initial exposure to the new language
Accords to Cumms students develop Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency within 5-7 years, without ESL methods. This process can be accelerated with the use of appropriate ESL teaching methodology
BICS is Social, language used to communicate in everyday situations, context embedded language, takes 1-2 years for L2 to reach L1
CALP is Academic language, language used to develop higher order thinking skills, context reduced language, takes 5-7 years for L2 to reach L1
The language skills that newcomer students need can be divided into two categories receptive and production skills
the two receptive skills are listening and reading
The two production skills are speaking and writing
Students use production skills when they use language to express themselves and their thinking
Listening, speaking, reading, and writing develop simultaneously
Students need opportunities to develop all of their language abilities through different modalities and technologies
Spoken fluency cannot be taught directly it emerges naturally
Language acquisition is influenced by age, motivation/attitude, L1 proficiency, general intelligence, previous schooling, amount of exposure to language, availability of language models
What are types of motivation in SLA Instrumental motivation (survival--making a living), Integrative Motivation (meeting new people and cultures)
Instrumental motivation often results in subtractive bilingualism
Integrative motivation often results in additive bilingualism
learning a second langauage at the cost of losing that first one. Subtractive Bilingualism
learning a second language while maintaining the first one additive bilingualism
According to the Commissioner's Rules teachers must support students by addressing what needs affective, cognitive, and linguistic
The greatest motivation for any students to learn a second language is the desire to live in fellowship with those individuals that speak that language affective support
Affective support includes anxiety free learning situation, valued native language and culture, advocacy for right, opportunities for success
How do you meet the affective needs for your ells find out what they already know and build on that, allow them to use their native language when necessary and even teach others about their native language and culture, advocate for their rights
Cognitive support includes comprehensible input, learning and meta cognitive strategies, TEKS in english and in the content areas, higher level thinking skills
How do I meet the cognitive needs of my ells have high expectations, speak slowly enunciate clearly and don't use idioms without explaining them, make connections between concepts and vocab, teach students valuable study skills and thinking strategies, modify lessons
Linguistic support includes research based language instruction, meaningful interactions with more proficient english speakers, instruction designed for level proficiency, explicit vocab instruction
how do i meet the linguistic needs of my ells understand the language learning process and design instruction/questioning techniques and acceptable student responses for their proficiency level, expand and elaborate on what students are saying, increase interaction in class by grouping, correct error
What is language proficiency level of skill student demonstrates in a language, ability to understand messages, ability to express meaning effectively, ability to use language fluently across a variety of contexts, ability to self correct
Group students homogenously to work on specific strategies that they may need due to their L1
Group students heterogeneously to provide them with an expert to learn from (i plus 1)
Semantic student uses prior knowledge and experience to make sense of the content
Syntactic (structural) student uses knowledge of grammer to decide if a word is correct
Graphophonic (visual) student refers to letters and may make one or more sounds in the word, decides if word is visually correct
Students at this level are typically new to English language, they have minimal ability to derive meaning from English text, they generally understand very little English and tend to read very slowly and word by word Beginning Level of Reading Proficiency
In order to figure out the meaning of what they read, these readers rely heavily on previous knowledge of the topic at hand, the very limited number of English words and phrases they have learned, and information from picture Beginning Level of Reading Proficiency
Because these learners English is so limited, their comprehension quickly breaks down when they try to read texts that are written for non LEP students at their grade level Beginning Level of Reading Proficiency
For student at the beginning level of reading proficiency you should focus on context clues, comprehension, repetition, patterns, "safe way" to hear correct pronunciation (echo reading, choral reading, read alouds, read along centers)
Students at this level have a somewhat larger English vocab and a basic sense of the structure of the English language. However, they ten to interp text very literally and have difficulty following story lines that have a twist intermediate reading proficiency
Students that still rely heavily on what they already know about a topic to confirm meaning and increase comprehension and pictures that illustrate meaning are still a needed support are in what level of reading proficiency Intermediate reading proficiency
Students at this level can read and understand simple texts on familiar topics with some success, although they sill have difficulty with materials for native speakers intermediate reading proficiency
Students at this level are becoming fairly functional readers of english, their english reading vocab is much larger now advanced reading proficiency
students that can read longer, more complex texts because they are familiar with the structure of the english language and use this knowledge effectively to construct meaning advanced reading proficiency
These students can understand texts that introduce them to topics they know little about, and they can move beyond literal comprehension to apply more abstract and critical thinking skills as they read. d Advanced Reading Proficiency
Students at this level may still have difficulty with certain words and structures as compared to their native English-speaking peers, but with assistance they can usually understand materials written for their grade level. Advanced Reading Proficiency
While working with Advanced reading proficiency students you should focus on academic language, mechanics, HOTS, new genres, using "mentor texts"
While teaching reading DONT ask the student to read aloud for purpose of testing comprehension, don't worry about "native sounding" pronunciation
For spelling instruction you want to focus on patterns in language
Who serves on an LPAC on Bilingual Ed campuses 4 members or more, campus administrator, 2 professional educators- 1 bilingual 1 esl or gen ed, and a parent of a lep ( not employed by district)
Who serves on an LPAC on ESL campuses 2 members or more- 1 or more professional personnel recommended that it be campus administrator and esl teacher, parent of lep student no employed by district
What odes an LPAC do review all pertinent info of lep students upon enrollment and at the end of the school year
the lpac checks for home language survey, assessments, standardized achievement test scores, classroom grades, number of years enrolled in school, mastery of teks
Lpacs do determine identification of student as lep or nonlep, give written notice to parents, recommend program placement, collect documentation, ensure testing guidelines, monitor students after exiting
What are the stages of acculturation euphoria, culture shock, tentative recovery, assimilation or adaptation
what does acculturation mean the process of becoming adjusted to another culture
students experience excitement about being in the new environment euphoria
students experience the intrusion of the new culture, depression, irritability, and difficulty in adjustment may occur culture shock
students experience acceptance or recovery from the initial culture shock. language proficiency increases and students feel more confident tentative recovery
students experience either adaptation or assimilation of the new culture with renewed self confidence assimilation or adaptation
What are some ways teacher can lessen that culture shock immigrants may experience value students' home culture and language, advocate for student and family right, teacher lessons that may teach more than just content but cultural issues as well
How can you help parents work with their children at home encourage them to use their native language, tv in english can help with vocab, students can help parents in many ways that will teach them skills they will use in school--measuring (cooking)
Points to or provides other non verbal responses, avtively listens, responds to commands, may be reluctant to speak, utters one to two words, understands more than can produce, use body language to show understanding, use present tense Beginning Student Behavior
Gestures, use TRP, Language focuses on conveying meaning, repetition, doesn't force to speak, write key words on board, use technology Sample Teacher Behaviors for Beginning Stage Students
Point to the.., find the, put the next to the, do you have this, is this a, who wants the, who has the Questioning Techniques for the Beginning Stage Student
Student may be able to draw or create models, label item in the room, copy notes from the board, make lists, choral reading Ways to get the beginning stage student involved
Understand routine directions and short simple conver., identify key words, seek clarificationin english, express simple messages and participate, demonstrate awareness of english grammer, limited reading comprehension, still struggle with some sounds Sample Intermediate stage student behavior
ask questions that can be answered by yes or no, models correct responeses, ensures a supportive environment, doesn't overly call attention to grammar, provides background knowledge, play games Sample teach behaviors for intermediate stage students
Yes/no, either/or, one word respeones, general questions which encourage lists of words, two word responses Questioning Techniques for intermediate stage students
Student may be able to repeat or echo readings, act out, teach classmates words in L1, write journal entries, use "cloze" techniques Ways to get the intermediate stage student involved
Will commit errors that show interference from L1, Communicate best when reading and writing topics are highly familiar and concrete, writing shows repetition of ideas Sample intermediate level of student behaviors
Participate in small group activities, demonstrates comprehension, speaks in short phrases, begins to use language freely, has grasp of basic grammar features, overgeneralize, know enough L2 to develop and demonstrate elements of grade level writing w/mod Sample Advanced level of student behaviors
Focuses on key concepts, provides frequent comprehension checks, uses center or performance based assessment, uses expanded vocab, ask open eneded questions Sample teacher behavior for advanced level students
Why, how, how is this like that, tell me about, describe, talk about, how would you change this part Questioning Techniques for advanced level students
Student may be able to be the scribe or reporter for a group, contribute more to class discussions especially after "think/pair/share" or other small group interactions Ways to get advanced level students involved
Participates in reading and writing activities, understand longer directions, rarely require the speaker to repeat, use english at level near natives, written errors are minor and usually low frequency words, ability to decode and understand grade level Sample behavior of advanced high level students
fosters conceptual development and expanded literacy through content, continues to make lessons comprehensible and interactive, teaches organizations thinking and study skills, continues to be alert to individual difference in lang and culture Sample Teacher behaviors for advanced high level students
What would you recommend, how do you think this story will end, what is the story mainly about, what is your opinion on this matter, describe, how are these similar, what would happen if, which do you prefer Questioning Techniques for advanced high level students
students may be able to teach the class about his home country, demonstrate or model ways of solving math problems in L1 country, interview others, work in small and large group and participate fully in all class activities Ways to get Advanced level students involved
reading of difficult classical texts is begun early, little attention is paid to the content of texts which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis grammar transltion method
often the only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the L1, little or no attention is given to prnunciation Grammar Translation method
Classroom instruction is conducted exclusively in the L2, only everyday vocab and sentenses are taught, oral communication skills are built up in a carefully graded progression organized around q&a exhanges between teachers and students in small classes Direct method
grammar is taught inductivly, new teaching points are introduced orally, concrete vocab is taught through demo., objective, and pictures, abstract vocab is taught by association of ideas direct method
both speech and listening comprehension are taught, correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized, emphasis is on natural language acquisition direct method
involved demonstration by teacher on role playing through active use of pictures, films, tapes, and other visuals, stress is placed on total immersion in L1 with no use of L1 Direct method
new material is pressent in dialogue form, there is no dependence on mimicy, momorizations of set phrases and over learning audio-lingual method
structures are sequenced by means of contrastive analysis and taught one at a time, structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills audio lingual method
little or no grammatical explanation, grammar is taught by inductive analogy rather than deductive explanation audio lingual method
vocab is strictly limited and learned in content, there is much use of tape, language labs, and visual aids, great importance is attached to pronunciations audio lingual mehtod
very little use of L1 by teachers is permitted, successful responses are immediately reinforced, great effort to get students to produce error free uteterances, tendency to manipulate language and disregard content audio lingual method
learning is facilittated if the learner discovers or creathers rather than repeats what is to be learned, accompanying physical objects, and by problem solving involving the material to be learned silent way
emphasis is placed on childlike experimentation with the L2, there is a strong use of L2 in explanations and discussions, encourages lack of inhibition and natural langauage acquisition, authority figure decides instructional program suggestopedia
use of music and highly suggestive materials, breathing techniques for relaxation, games and hands on activities, and role playing suggestopedia
useful for both adults and children in early stages of l2, teacher gives commands and models the physical movement to carry out the command, focus is on listening and comprehension by responding to commands with appropriate physical movement in early sta Total physical response
Adds body movements to the acquisition of structures and vocab, estrablishes a relationship between student and teacher, the learner moves through levels of competency described as no knowing, to value, to self worth, to wholeness total physical response
hopefully the learner becomes a member of a learning community that words together as a cohort of learners of the l2 total physical response
focus is on academic skills in the content areas, supported by cognitive theorists, useful for esl students that have developed baisic interpersonal communications skills cognitive academic language learning approach
useful for foreign students who have developed CALP in their L1 and need assistance in transferring concepts and skills to the L2 Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach
Emphasis is on the generality of the acquistion process, techniques fovus on providing context in the classroom for natural language acqusition to occur in order to acquire the max comprehensible input natural approach
emphasis is place on speech through the creations of loq anxiety situations, recognizes the difference between bics and calp natural approach
compilation of many research based L2 acquistion methods, content and language objectives are included in each lesson, language is taught through content area instruction, not as a seperate subject sheltered instruction
uses hands on activities, graphic organizers, visuals, realia, modeling, cooperative learning as tools for effective learning, HOTS are included and key sheltered instruction
teacher listens to get to know the students and begins to dialogue then moves to action, students are taught how to confront the forces in life to keep them passive, students challenge power structures critical pedagogy
teachers are careful not to impose their own worldview, tacher and students communicate as co learners drama, role play provides a physical and emotional context for learns to acquire l2, placting enables leraners to take risks that they wouldn't critical pedagogy
work to low the affective filter, enable students to use l2 in meaningful and purposeful ways to facilitate acquisition games
enable students to practice the rhythm, intonation and natural nuances of language, music reduces the affective filter, rhythm and music failitate the memorization of words, images, and ideas jazz chants
How is Title 3 Part A funding determined 80% of funds based on number of LEP students and 20% based on the number of immigrant students
Does Title 3, part A have a supplement, not supplant requirement Yes, funds must be used to supplement and not supplant and other federal, state, or local funds. They cannot be used to fund programs that are required by state law
With the understanding that the funds are supplemental how may an LEA use title 3 part a funds increase the english proficiency of LEP children by providing high quality language instruction educational programs that are based on scientifically based research deonstrating the effectiveness of the programs
may titale 3 part a funds be used for administration yes, an LEA is restricted to no more than 2% of its funds
If the LEA has experienced a significant increase in the % and # of immigrant children and receives addional funds because of this increase, how is its prgram affected The LEA will indicate the application of additional and supplemental activities and servies provided with program funds
A LEP student may be administered a Spanish version of the assessment of academic skills for a maximum of 3 years
immigrant LEP students who have had inadequate schooling outside the US may be eligible for an exemption from the assessment of acadmic skills not to exceed 3 years
advanced high on the state administered English language proficiency assessment in reading during the student's first year of enrollment in US schools is not eligible for an exemption
immigrant student may be granted a LEP exemption if the LPAC determines that the student has not had the schooling outside the US
the immigrant student who schooling outside the US was inadequate and for whom a primary language assessment is not available me be granted a LEP exemption
A LEP student who parent or guardian has declined the services required is not eligible for an exemption
what are the steps for decision making for students in esl programs review schooling outside us, determine and monitor instructional interventions, examine current year's progress, make and document assessment decision
theory that both acquistion of l1 and l2 can contribute to underlying language proficiency underlying both languages, given adequate motivation and exposure to both, within school or environment additive model/common underlying proficiency
optimal input occurs when the affective filter is love. a screen of emotion that can block language acquisition or leaning if it keeps the users from being too self conscious or too embarrassed to take risks during communicative exchanges affective filter
non communicative approach that involves heavy use of mimicry, imitation and drill. speech and not writin is emphasized. audio lingual method
those that are cognitively undemanding and include known idea, vocab, and syntax. aspects of communication that are used daily in routine communicative exchanges BICS
compensatory program to support education programs, train teachers, develop and disseminate instructional materials and encourage parental involvement in program. Bilingual education act
skills that are necessary literacy obtainment and academic success. endables students to have academic, analytical converstaion and to independently acquire factual information CALP
teaching approach where negotiation for meaning is critical the teacher becomes a faciliato, collaborative learning and peer interaction is important, students and teacher select and organize curriculum communicative approaches
communicative approach that focuses on the whole learner, starts with the individual then expands to group and includes music, art, and physical activity humanistic approach
pioneered cognitive approach to understanding language acquisition. mind contains language acquistion that generates rules through the unconscious acquistion of grammer noam chomsky
the general study of how context affects the users interpretation of language pragmatics
the study of meanings of individual words and or larger units such as phrases and sentences semantics
the study of the sentence patterns of a language and rules that govern the correctness of a sentence syntax
Created by: Rachel Henson Rachel Henson on 2012-04-07



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