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AICP People

Review of Famous Planners for AICP Exam

QuestionAnswer
Edward Bassett The "Father of Zoning". Helped shape Standard City Enabling Act 1928
Alfred Bettman Cincinnati Lawyer. Played a key role in Cincinnati Plan (1925), Euclid v. Amber (1926) 
Daniel Hudson Burnham Father of city planning in US. Among city planners is renowned for the influential 1909 "Plan for Chicago". Famous for his quote, "Make no little plans, they have no magic to stir men's blood".
Daniel Hudson Burnham His "White City" at the Columbian Expo inspired the "City Beautiful Movement", and his Chicago Plan (1909) gave birth to modern city planning.
Paul Davidoff Founded the Suburban Action Institute in 1969, whose members challenged exclusionary zoning in the courts, winning in the Mt. Laurel case. Developed the concept of the "advocacy planner".
Patrick Geddes Author of the "Cities in Evolution". Considered the "father" of regional planning.
Ebenezer Howard Published "Tomorrow, A Peaceful Path to Real Reform" in 1898, starting the Garden City Movement. The book was reissued in 1902 as "Garden Cities of Tomorrow"
Jane Jacobs Author of 1961 book, "The Death and Life of Great American Cities", forced its readers to rethink urban renewal and other contemporary tools of city building.
T.J. Kent Jr. San Francisco - served as the coordinator for housing, planning, and development. Wrote "The Urban General Plan".
Pierre Charles L'Enfant Plan for Washington DC - made use of grid pattern, axials, and circles.
Kevin Lynch Author of "Image of the City". Focused on how users perceive and organize spatial information as they navigate through cities. Coined the words "imageability" and "wayfinding".
Ian McHarg Wrote "Design with Nature". Father of Modern Ecology/Environmental Movement. Proposed the use of transfer of development rights (TDR) to preserve landscape. Renowned for his advocacy of ecological planning and for the layered mapping techniques.
Lewis Mumford Outspoken critic of the Regional Plan of NY 1929. Prolific author - "The Culture of Cities" (1938)- inspired city and regional planning efforts.
Fredrick Law Olmsted, Sr. Co-designer of Forest Hills and Riverside, IL. Site planner for the 1893 Columbian Exposition
Fredrick Law Olmsted, Jr. Designer of Forest Hills Gardens and Palos Verdes Estates. Played important role in shaping Standard City Enabling Act 1928
Clarence Arthur Perry Promoter of the neighborhood unit concept. Author of "Housing for a Mechanic Age, Regional Survey of New York and Environs" (1929)
Pullman, George His model company town, he tried to combine the industrialist's need for efficiency with the worker's need for decent housing
Jacob Riis Used photography and writing to reveal the terrible conditions of the urban poor in "How The Other Half Lives" (1890) and "Children of the Poor" (1892). Led to the first federal investigation of slums and to changes in NYC's housing laws
Charlotte Rumbold Influential in citizen planning. Helped found the Ohio Planning Conference, the 1st statewide citizen based group (1919). Won legislative support for planning enabling laws, zoning and subdivision regs, and public housing (1920-30's)
Mary K. Simkhovitch Organized one of the nation's first settlement houses, Greenwich House in New York. Described in her autobiography, "Neighborhood: My Story of Greenwich House
Clarence S. Stein Co-designer of Radburn, NJ. Member of Regional Plan Association of America (RPAA)
Catherine Bauer Wrote "Modern Housing". She attributed the lack of low cost housing to the liberal intellectuals, trade unions, and planners. Considered a key housing reformer of the 20th Century
Clarence Perry Father of the Neighborhood Unit Concept, wrote "Housing for the Mechanic Age" (1939) and "Regional Survey of New York and its Environs" (1929).
Frank Lloyd Wright Wrote "Broadacre City - A New Community Plan" (1935)
Ebenezer Howard Wrote "Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform" (1898)
Ian McHarg  Wrote "Design with Nature" 1971  
Jacob Riis Wrote "How the Other Half Lives" (1890) and "Children of the Poor" (1892)
Jacobs, Jane Wrote "The Death and Life of a Great American City" (1961)
Kevin Lynch Image of the City (1960), summarizes a 5-year study on how people perceive their cities; What Time is This Place (1972), examining how time may be passed in cities and urban conservation; and Up in Cities (1977), explores how environments affect children
Lewis Mumford Wrote "The Culture of Cities" (1938), The Condition of Man (1944), and The Conduct of Life (1951)
Patrick Geddes Wrote "Cities in Evolution" (1915) Focus on place - Work - Folk
Sherry Arnstein Wrote "Ladder of Citizen Participation"
Peter Calthorpe Developed the design feature "Transit Oriented Developments" (TOD's)
Saul Alinksy Father of Neighborhood Organizing Movement, 1940's Back of the Yards (Chicago) from Upton Sinclair's The Jungle. Rules for Radicals 1971. Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF)1940
Saul Alinksy   The organization uses boycotts to initiate change, a paid organizer is used to organize people and an invitation is given to members of a community to participate in the organization.
Robert Moses Known as "Great Expediter" leading city planner in 1920's replacing Burnham. "If the ends don't justify the means, than what the hell does." Portland, OR program of public improve. NY region over 400 miles of parkways-Triborough Bridge, Jones Beach
Thomas Adams Secretary of the Garden City Association and the 1st manager of Letchworth, England
Rachel Carson Wrote Silent Spring, focused on the negative effects of pesticides on the environment
Rexford Tugwell Head of the Resettlement Administration under FDR - began work on the greenbelt communities
Joel Garreau Wrote Edge City - Life on the New Frontier, 1991, about the end of central city growth, population and economic activity shifting to suburbs, and the urban secession and other autonomy struggles that arise
Catherine Bauer Founder of American housing policy, wrote Modern Housing (1934) and was influential in the passage of the Housing Act of 1937
John Muir one of the earliest modern environmental preservationists Founded the Sierra Club.
Richard Babcock Author of "The Zoning Game" (1966) observations on American zoning practice.
William Whyte Knonw for "Street Life Project" (1969) - Authored several texts about urban planning and design and human behavior in various urban spaces.
Saul Alinsky Was associated with advocacy planning.
Harland Bartholomew 1916 - First full time city planner in the US, wrote the comprehensive plan for St. Louis, & owned a private consulting firm.
Alfred Bateman First president of the American Society of Planning Officals
Charles Lindbolm Known for theory of incrementalism in policy and decsion making as described in his work the "The Science of Muddling Through" - 1959
Norman Krumholz Associated with the development of equity planning theory. Was head of Cleveland’s city planning from 1969 -1979.
Herbert Simon Introduced the concept of Satisficing
John Friedmann Research focus is on processes of urbanization, knonw for many publications including "Planning in the public domain : from knowledge to action" (1987)
Amitai Etzioni Modern planning theorist - famous for work on socioeconomics and communitarianism believes individual rights and aspirations should be protected but that they should be inserted into a sense of the community
George Haussmann Responsible for the 19th century Plan of Paris
Christopher Stone Known for 1972 book "Should Trees Have Standing?" discussed the authority to file suit in the Sierra Club v. Morton, Secretary of the Interior case where the Sierra Club attempted to block the development of a ski resort in the Sequoia National Forest.
Peter Drucker Associated with Management by Objectives (MBO) - a process of agreeing upon objectives within an organization so that management and employees buy in to the objectives and understand what they are.
John Logan & Harvey Molotch Commonly associated with the term "Growth Machine"
Ernest Burgess Urban sociologist - research, provided the foundation for The Chicago School. In "The City" described the city into the concentric zones (Concentric ring model), central business district, transitional, working class, residential, and commuter/suburban
Homer Hoyt Known for the "Sector Model", that modified the concentric zone model of city development. Suggested that various groups expand outward from the city center along railroads, highways, and other transportation arteries.
Louis Wirth Major contribution to social theory of urban space was a classic essay "Urbanism as a Way of Life" interests included city life, minority group behaviour and mass media and he is recognised as one of the leading urban sociologists.
Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann A French civic planner whose name is associated with the rebuilding of Paris, commissioned by Napoléon,spanning from 1852 to 1870. The project encompassed all aspects of urban planning
Homer Hoyt Known for the "Sector Model" aka Theory of Axial Development (1939)
Harris and Ullman Proposed Multi-Nuclei Model in 1945 - progressive integration of a number of separate nuclei. Nodes become specialized by attributes: accessibility, compatibility, incompatibility and sustainability.
Earnest Burgess Concentric zone model with CBD in center and residential in outer zones. Pattern of “Invasion and Succession” would change pattern with inner zones pushing outer zones further out (1920s).
Edward J. Kaiser Focus on improving the quality of local land use plans and and developing land use planning strategies for hazard mitigation and environmental protection. Famous book "Urban Land Use Planning" 5th ed.
Randall Arendt In Rural by Design (1994) advocates creative, practical land-use planning techniques to preserve open space and community character. He shows how developments all across America have used these techniques successfully.
James Kunstler New Urbanist "The Geography of Nowhere" " The City in Mind" Anti Modernism, Strip Malls, & Sprawl
Created by: rpalladino on 2007-04-23



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