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AICP Implementation

AICP Plan Implementation

QuestionAnswer
Subdivision The division of land into two or more parcels, sites, or lots, any one of which is less than 5 acres, for the purpose of transfer of ownership, development, or other form of valuable interest.
Plat A map of a tract or parcel of land
Replat Allows for lots to be subdivided further or added back together.
Amending Plat Corrects errors or adds additional information to a plat.
Vacating Plat Allows for a plat to be terminated prior to the selling of any lots.
Preliminary Plat A to-scale mechanical drawing with precise topography and prescribed intervals showing the calculated location of all lots, streets, drainage patterns, facilities, and proposed dedications.
Final Plat The approved preliminary plat with all bearing, monuments, curves, and notations, together with all dedications, easement, and approvals.
Performance Bond An agreement between the property owner and the community to ensure that the final plat is built as shown on the drawings within a certain time period.
Impact fees Typically charged for off-site infrastructure that is needed to provide service to a development, such as a water or sewer main.
Subdivision Bonus Additional development benefits beyond those normally offered in exchange for enhancements such as affordable housing, cluster housing, and open space preservation. May include assistance with infrastructure, waiving impact fees, or density bonus.
Extraterritorial Jurisdiction The distance outside of the city limits where the subdivision regulations apply, specified under state law.
Zoning The separation and control of land uses.
Purposes of Zoning Regulate land use, prevent land-use conflict, and allow growth to occur in a planned manner, protect property values, health, safety, environment, aesthetics, manage traffic, density, promote variety of housing, & attract business & industry.
Board of Zoning Appeals A quasi-judicial board that hears cases for variances, special exceptions to the zoning ordinance, and appeals of staff's administration of the zoning ordinance.
Zoning text, ordinance, or code Lays out the exact regulations that the zoning is created to implement.
Zoning Map Shows which types of land uses are allowable where.
Euclidean Zoning Places the most protective restrictions on residential land uses, less on commercial uses, and virtually none on industrial uses. This concept places the most restrictive zoning category, single family residential, at the top of the pyramid.
Cumulative Zoning Single-family residential districts are the most exclusive, successively more intense zoning district allows all the uses from the previous zones.
Modified Cumulative Zoning Districts are typically cumulative by type of land use.
Conditional Use Is a permitted use, for which review is necessary to determine what, if any, condition should be imposed. Approval is not a variance, waiver, or relaxation of any of the provisions of zoning code.
Nonconforming use A property use that existed prior to the adoption of district regulations and is allowed to continue under the "grandfather clause." May be allowed to continue indefinitely until it naturally ceases or for a set period of time.
Amortization of nonconforming use Sets a definite period of time within which the use must come into compliance with the zoning ordinance
Accessory use Use incidental to the main use of a property. Examples of accessory uses include outside sales, outside storage, a telecommunications tower, home occupations, and a garage apartment.
Planned Unit Developments (PUDs) Alternative to strict zoning regulations. Typically used for large developments with a mix of uses. Applies a different set of controls to a tract of land than standard land use zoning. The entire development site plan is reviewed by the governing body.
Information needed for a PUD Location of the property, size of streets, use of buildings within the development; capacity of the nearest infrastructure and public facilities; proposed landscaping and pedestrian ways; open space; and sign sizes and locations.
Overlay zoning district A set of additional restrictions that are placed over the top of an existing zone. Examples airports, historic preservation, neighborhood revitalization zones, flood hazard areas, enterprise zones, and foreign trade zones.
Variance Is a change in the terms of the zoning regulations due to economic or physical hardship.
Two types of variances The use variance and the area variance
Use variance Allows a property to have a use not explicitly allowed under the zoning district regulations.
Area variance Allows a property to be excluded from the physical site requirements under the zoning ordinance.
Variance requirements Unique to the surrounding property, must have a physical or economic hardship, will not result in a reduction in property values, property owner did not cause the need, and is not contrary to the spirit of the zoning ordinance.
Planning and Zoning Commission (P&Z) Duties include issuing recommendations in matters of zoning are made to a governing body or in other cases; it renders final approval. Made up of community residents and business owners appointed by the governing body.
First amendment Freedom of speech applies to adult uses and signs. Freedom of religion applies to religious facilities. Freedom of association applies to group homes.
Fifth amendment Requires just compensation for takings. This applies in cases of takings and eminent domain.
Fourteenth amendment Due process, substantive due process, procedural due process, and equal protection. Due process can be applied to takings, eminent domain, and exactions.
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) Requires that the environmental impacts of all major federal actions project be considered.
Environmental Assessment (EA) Required if a major federal action will NOT have a significant impact on the environment (a shorter document)
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Required if a major Federal action that will significantly affect the quality of the human environment (a longer document)
EA is only allowed If the agency has issued a "Finding of No Significant Impact" (FONSI).
Categorical Exclusion A category of actions that generally are not likely to have significant environmental impacts - does NOT require an EA or an EIS as the proposed action does not have any unusual characteristics that risk significant environmental impacts.
EIS includes Purpose and need of the proposed action; a description of the affected environment; a range of alternatives to the proposed action; and an analysis of the environmental impacts of each of the possible alternatives.
Budget The allocation and expenditure of funds to provide service to the public. A budget serves to set spending priorities.
Operating budget Includes the everyday expenditures of an organization, such as supplies, personnel, and maintenance of office space.
Capital budget A one-year budget for long-term purchases, such as a new building, a recreation center, a water main, or major equipment.
Capital Improvements Program (CIP) A longer range (5-10 year) look at the capital needs of a community. Includes project descriptions, estimated costs, construction timelines, and sources of funding.
Budget Purposes Resource allocation, financial control, management control, communication tool and a planning tool. It can provide short and long-range forecasts of revenues, spending, and community change.
Line Item Budget Emphasizes projecting the budget for the next year while adding in inflationary costs. Doesn’t evaluate existing services, easy to prepare and easy for public officials to understand. Doesn’t look at how expenditures fund programs and/or program results.
Planning, Programming, Budgeting Systems (PPBS) Focuses on planning through accomplishing goals set by a department. Helps place programs in perspective/evaluate efforts/accomplishments. Time-consuming to prepare and requires that goals and objects be stated in measurable terms (not always substantive)
Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) Emphasizes planning/fosters understanding within all units of an organization. Requires a department to consider every aspect of its operation & concentrate on why it does things the way it does. Disadvantage can be time consuming to justify every activty
Performance-based budget Focuses on linking funding to performance measures. Meeting performance goals results in funding increases. Helps develop & evaluate performance standards. Time-consuming to prepare & requires that goals and objects be stated in measurable terms.
Pay-As-You-Go Uses current funds to pay for capital improvement projects.
Reserve Funds Funds that have been saved for the purchase of future capital improvements.
General Obligation (GO) Bonds Voter-approved bonds for capital improvements. Use the tax revenue of the government to pay back the debt.
Revenue Bonds Use a fixed source of revenue to pay back the debt. Revenue bonds are commonly used to finance utility improvements and special facilities, such as baseball stadiums.
Tax Increment Financing (TIF) Allows a designated area to have tax revenue increases used for capital improvements in the area.
Special Assessments Allow a particular group of people to be assessed the cost of a public improvement
Lease-purchase Allows a government to “rent-to-own.” The benefit is that the government does not have to borrow money to finance the acquisition of a major capital improvements.
Grants Allow for all or a portion of the cost of a public facility to be paid for by someone other than the local government (such as private sector, and foundations). Typically require matching funds from the local government.
Progressive Tax The tax rate increases as income rises. For example, the federal income tax system taxes those with higher incomes (with more disposable income) with a higher tax rate than those with low incomes.
Proportional Tax The tax at the same marginal rate regardless of income. A flat tax. For example, a property tax rate is the same regardless of the price of your home. A person who owns a $50,000 home pays the same proportion as a person who owns a $250,000 home.
Regressive Tax The tax rate decreases as income rises. Frequently applied in reference to fixed taxes, where every person has to pay the same amount of money (motor vehicle rgistration fees).
Cost-benefit analysis Estimates the total monetary value of the benefits and costs to the community of a project(s) to determine whether they should be undertaken. Typically, this is used for public projects such as highways and other public facilities.
Cost-effectiveness analysis Method for selecting among competing projects when resources are limited, developed by the military. $50,000 for park improvements can be spent on adding playground equipment vs. a new lawn mower.
Goals Achievement Matrix (GAM) A chart that shows the anticipated attainment of a project’s goals and the assignment of accomplishing a goal to a group.
Gantt Chart A chart that focuses on the sequence of tasks necessary for project completion.
Linear programming A project management method that attempts to find the optimum design solution for a project. This system takes a set of decision variables within constraints and comes up with an optimum design solution.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) A scheduling method that graphically illustrates the interrelationships of project tasks. A good choice when precise time estimates are not available for project tasks. Developed by the US Navy in the 1950s & now used widely in the defense industry.
PERT Includes Identify the specific activities and milestones; determine the proper sequence of the activities; construct a network diagram, determine the critical path; and update chart as the project progresses.
Critical Path Method (CPM) A tool to analyze a project. Each project task has a known amount of time to complete and cannot be completed before the previous one is completed. The analysis results in a “critical path” through the project tasks. Longest pathway is the critical path.
640 Acres In a Square Mile
43,560 sq. feet In an Acre
5,280 feet In a Linear Mile
Section-Range-Township Each section is 1 sq. mile. 36 sections comprise a township (usually). Not a political township. Numbering begins in the NE corner.
Affirmative Easement An obligation of both parties to take steps to perform some act to maintain a reciprocal relationship. Ex. Access easement or joint maintenance agreement.
Negative Easement Where both parties refrain from taking certain actions. Ex. Easement of View, Façade, historic preservation or conservation.
Dedication A gift of land to be used for a public purpose, together with the land owner’s offer to transmit. Land uses include roads, utility lines, parks and trails.
Exaction A demand by the government that the developer either dedicate certain property or monies for public use to hold the project harmless from public obligation. Must be roughly proportional to the impact of development.
Zoning Districts Minimum Controls Permitted uses, use by condition or special use, and bulk & dimensions of lots/buildings.
Manufactured Home Specifically refers to a home built entirely in a protected environment under a federal code set by HUD in 1976. Has a HUD seal on it.
Mobile Home Describes factory-built homes produced prior to the 1976 HUD Code enactment.
Modular Home Home that are manufactured in a remote facility and then delivered to their intended site of use. Most built to local code. Low cost due to Indoor construction, favorable pricing from suppliers and low waste.
Form-Based Zoning Prescribes build-to lines, specifically defining desired development patterns. Based on ideal urban forms or contextual cues it ensures that new development will be appropriate to community vision or existing character.
Performance Zoning Specifies the acceptable intensity of land use as opposed to specific uses. Looks at how land use impacts surrounding areas. Requires zoning officials to make determinations based on semi subjective criteria. Subject to more legal challenges.
Vested Rights Refers to the government's permission to develop property that can NOT be taken back by a subsequent governmental act. Established when a landowner has undertaken substantial construction and made substantial expenditures in reliance on that approval.
Home Occupation A business conducted in a residential dwelling unit that is incidental & subordinate to the primary residential use. Regulations usually restrict the percentage of the unit that can be used for business, exterior evidence of business, parking & traffic.
Supplemental Use Zoning ordinance imposes additional requirements on certain specified activities to further limit their operation – addresses externalities. By right use if compliant with requirements.
Down Zoning It is rezoning of a track of land to less-dense uses. Ex: prohibiting high-rise apartments and allowing only low-rise apartments or single-family homes.
Annexation Adds land to a municipality In return municipality must provide services. May be initiated by the property owner or the municipality.
Disannexation A majority of the property owners in an area may petition for this if they no longer want to be in the municipality.
Purchase of Development Rights (PDR) Most effective technique for preserving agricultural land.
Coupon Rate Annual rate of interest pais on a bond that a borrower pays to the bond holder.
Created by: rpalladino on 2007-04-07



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