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Language Files 11th edition The Ohio State University

Linguistic Competence "hidden" knowledge. (Stored in your mind)
Linguistic perofrmance the way that they produce and commprehend language. (Revealed in your speech)
Performance Errors errors in language production or comprehension, including hesitations and slips of the tongue.
Language an abstractcognitive system that uniquely allows humans to produce and comprehend meaningful utterances.
Communication Chain The process through which information is communicated, consisting of an information source, transmitter, signal, reciever, and destination.
Noise interference in the communication chain
Phonology study of sound system or sound pattern of language
Morphology study of word formation. (wait on vs. wait for, might could)
Historical Linguistics study of how language changes over time, how languages are historically related to one another.
Semantics word meaning. (knock up, Brittish vs. American)
Idiolect an individual's particular variety of speaking
Dialect a variationof a language that is mutually intelligible with other varieties
Five basic characteristics of human language (1) creativity (2)arbitrariness (3)productivity (4)complexity/systematicity (5) non-biological basis of variation
Dialect continuum a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater
Isogloss a line drawn on a dialect map marking the boundary of an area where a particular linguistic feature is found
Blending Process of creating a new word by combining the parts of two different words Ex: Brunch, Spork
Sociolect dialect associated with a particular social or economic class
Where in the US are American English dialects the most concentrated (which geographical location has the most variety)? East
Which area has the least number of dialects (in the US)? West
Backformation New words that are formed by taking a verb and creating a noun
Jargon Vocabulary words that are usually only used in specific vocations
Syntax a component of mental grammar that deals with constructing phrasal expressions out of smaller expressions. (That's the dog bit me)
Sociolinguistics the study of the interrelationships of language and social structure, of linguistic variation, and of attitudes toward language.
Pragmatics study of how context affects language use
Applied Linguistics the application of the methods and results of linguistic research.
Neurolinguistics study of the neural and electrochemical bases of language development and use
Psycholinguistics the study of the brain and how it functions in the production, perception, comprehension, storage, and acquisition of language.
Mutual Intelligibility Situation in which speakers of different language varieties are able to understand and communicate with one another.
Compounding word formation process by which words are formed through combining two or more independent words
Clipping Process of creating new words by shortening a longer word
Coinage process of creating new words without employing any other word or word part already in existence. Words are created "out of thin air"
Conversion A word created by shifting the lexical catergory of a word to a different category without changing the form of the word.
Eponym A word (such as a place name, invention or activity) that is based on the name of a person or people somehow connected with the word.
Linguistic Determinism Language structure determines (strong) or influences (weak) thought.
Linguistic Relativity Language structure influences (strong) or reflects (weak) culture.
Lexicon (sub~hoagie~grinder~hero~po'boy)
prescriptive grammar A set of rules designed to give instructions reguarding the socially embedded notion of the "correct" or "proper" way to speak or write.
descriptive grammar Objective descrption of a speaker's knowledge of alanguage based on their use of language
idiolect the language variety of an individual speaker
sociolinguistics the study of the interrelationships of language and social structure, of linguistic variation, and of attitudes toward language.
geographic isolation distance, physical barriers
Social Isolation seperation by socioeconomic class, race, age, sex
Temporal Isolation seperation over time, e.g., Old vs. Modern English
(3) Sources of Linguistic Diversity: Isolation (1) Graphic Isolation (2) Social Isolation (3) Temporal Isolation
Nature of dialect variation: Accent (pronounciation) --Phonetics (scots trilled vs. American vocalic r). --Phonology (pen=pin, cot=caught)
Nature of dialect variation: Morphology wait on vs. wait for, might could
Nature of dialect variation: Syntax that's the dog bit me
Nature of dialect variation: Semantics knock up, British vs. American
Nature of dialect variation: Lexicon sub~hoagie~grinder~hero~po'boy
Isogloss line on a map marking the geographic boundary of some linguistic tarit. Bundle of isoglosses: dialect boundary
Linguistics the scientific study of language. LINGUA= 'tongue'
Historical Linguistics the study of how languages change through time; the study of how languages are historically related to one another.
Anthropological Linguistics the study of the relations between language and culture and the relations between human biology, cognition, and language
Psycholinguistics The study of the relationships between linguistic behavior and psychological processes, including the process of language acquisition
Neurolinguistics the study of the neural and electrochemical bases of language development and use.
Pragmatics The branch of linguistics dealing with language in use and the contexts in which it is used.
aveolar (speech sound) sound produced by raising the front of the tongue toward the aveolar ridge (bony structure located behind the upper front teeth) EX: (t, d, s,z,n, l/)
bilabial (speech sound) sound produced by bringing both lips together. EX: (/p,b,m,w/)
labiodental (speech sound) sound produced by making contact between the lower lip and the upper teeth. EX: (/f,v/)
interdental (speech sound) sound produced by positioning the tip of the tongue between the upper and lower teeth.
retroflex (speech sound) sound produced by curling the tip of the tongue behind the aveolar ridge (bony structure located behind the upper front teeth) usually to the top of the mouth
velar (speech sound) sound produced by raising the back of the tongue toward the velum (soft part of the roof of the mouth behind the hard plate) EX: (/k,g,w/)
glottal (speech sound) sounds produced at the larynx. EX:
Manner of Articulation: STOP sound produced by completely obstructing the airstream in the oral acvity and then quickly releasing the constriction to allow the air to escape. (/p, b, t, d, k, g, ?/)
Manner of Articulation: AFFRICATIVE Combination of a stop and a fricative. Sound produced by complete obstruction of the airflow followed by a slight release of the obstruction, allowing frication.
Manner of Articulation: FRICATIVE sound made by forming a nearly complete obstruction of the airstream so that when air passes through the small passage, turbolent airflow. (/f, v, s, z, h
Manner of Articulation: NASAL sound produced by making a complete obstruction of the airflow in the oral cavity and lowering the velum to allow air to pass through the nasal cavity, unlike oral stops. EX: (m, n
Manner of Articulation: LIQUID consonant sound produced by an obstruction of airflow that is less narrow than that of stops or fricatives, but more narrow than that of glides. EX: (l,
Manner of Articulation: GLIDE sound produced with a construction in the vocal tract that is only slightly more constricted than that of vowels. EX: (/j, w/)
voiced sound made with the vocal folds vibrating. EX: (b, d, j, g, v, z,
voiceless sound made without the vocal folds vibrating. EX: (/p, t, k, f, s,
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (strong) language determines thought and that linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categories
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (weak) linguistic categories and usage influence thought and certain kinds of non-linguistic behavior
social stratification hierarchical structures of class and status in any society
slang informal, typically youth-oriented vocab
argot a secret language used by various groups. vocab or stigmatized groups.
jargon vocab of professional or occupational group.
English Only Movement proposition 227 was made to have English only instruction was implemented in schools.
taboo socially "prohibited" vocab
Derivation morpheme added to create/ deriver a new word.
inflection creation of different grammatical forms of words.
accents variety of language that differs in pronunciation
dialects variety of languages that differ in grammar/structure
morpheme the minimal unit bearing meaning in a language.
free morpheme a morpheme that is not phonologically dependent on any other morpheme EX: WIND-ed
bound morpheme a morpheme that can't stand alone but rather must co-occur within a word with another EX: un, re, ed
lexical categories a category of words, such as nouns or verns, that share certain sematic, morphological, or syntactic properties, or all three.
root the core element of a word. it carries the heaviest sematic load and places restrictions on what kind of morphemes, if any, may be affixed to it.
affix prefix, suffix, infix, circumfix
lexicon mental dictionary
consonants sounds produced with an obstruction to the airflow in the vocal tract
vowels sounds produce without obstructing airflow
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (linguistic determinism) language structure determines (strong) or influences (weak) thought.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (linguistic relativity) language structure influences (strong) or reflects (weak) culture.
taboo socially "prohibited" vocab
p symbol Voiceless.
b symbol Voiced.
dialect continuum when a large number of conigious dialects exists. EX: Spain and portugal the dialect is so close, they can still understand eachother to an extent.
bi-labial words using two lips.
labio-dental lips & teeth used
Created by: layteenorkeh