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Praxis II 0622

QuestionAnswer
Bandura social learning theory – emphasizes reinforcement and effects of cues on thought and thought on action.
Bruner constructivist approach – top down – students begin with complex problems to solve and then work out or discover required basic skills.
Dewey progressive education – children came to school to obtain guided experiences, application, not just instruction.
Piaget cognitive development theory – a child’s intellect progresses through four distinct stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational.
Vygotsky zone of proximal development – level of development immediately above a person’s present level.
Kohlberg stage theory of moral reasoning – people progress through three levels as they develop abilities of moral reasoning: preconventional, conventional, post conventional.
Bloom Bloom’s taxonomy – ordering of objectives from simple learning tasks to more complex ones. (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation).
Metocognition knowledge about one’s own learning or about how to learn (“thinking about thinking”).
Schema information stored in long-term memory in schemata (networks of connected facts and concepts), which provide structure for making sense of new information.
Transfer the application of knowledge acquired in one situation to new situations. (classroom to real world)
Self-efficacy a person’s belief in his or her ability to succeed in a particular situation.
Self-regulation the ability to think and solve problems without the help of others.
Classical conditioning process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response.
Operant conditioning the use of pleasant or unpleasant consequences to control the occurrence of behavior.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities in job application procedures hiring, firing, advancement, compensation, job training.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires provision of special-education services to eligible students.
Section 504, Rehabilitation Act forbids organizations and employers from excluding or denying individuals with disabilities an equal opportunity to receive program benefits and services.
Thorndike anxiety related to school – motivation, emotional intelligence – focused on intrinsic/extrinsic motivation.
Maslow hierarchy of needs – students who have not fulfilled basic needs cannot focus on academic success.
Skinner operant conditioning – behavior changes according to its immediate consequences, reinforcers, primary reinforce, secondary reinforce.
Erikson psychosocial theory – a set of principles that relates social environment to psychological development.
Attribution theory A theory of motivation that focuses on how people explain the causes of their own successes and failures.
Intrinsic incentive/motivation an aspect of an activity that people enjoy, and therefore, find motivating.
Extrinsic incentive/motivation a reward that is external to the activity, such as recognition or a good grade.
Self-determination an understanding of one’s strengths and limitations together with a belief in oneself as capable and effective.
Cognitive dissonance discomfort felt when there is a conflict between what you already know and new information you have received. Resist new info because it conflicts with current knowledge.
Schema Information is stored in long-term memory in schemata (networks of connected facts and concepts), which provide a structure for making sense of new information.
Information processing Cognitive theory of learning that describes the processing, storage, and retrieval of knowledge in the mind.
Mapping Diagramming main ideas and the connections between them.
Modeling Imitation of others’ behavior.
Reciprocal determinism the world and a person’s behavior cause each other.
Vicarious learning Learning based on observation of the consequences of others’ behavior.
Learning as experience students use their own experiences to construct meaning that makes sense to them rather than just hear the answer from the teacher.
Problem-based learning (PBL) teacher presents a problem and learning becomes active by discover, working to find the content and find a solution. Teacher as facilitator or mentor.
Zone of proximal development level of development immediately above a person’s present level.
Scaffolding support for learning and problem solving; might include clues, reminders, encouragement, breaking the problem down into steps, providing an example, or anything else that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner.
Discovery learning constructivist approach to teaching in which students are encouraged to discover principles themselves.
Positive reinforcement pleasurable consequences given to strengthen behavior.
Negative reinforcement release from an unpleasant situation, given to strengthen behavior.
Punishment unpleasant consequences used to weaken behavior.
Direct Instruction teacher-centered - approach to teaching in which the teacher transmits information directly to the students; lessons are goal-oriented and structured by the teacher.
Indirect instruction learning-centered teaching strategy. It promotes student involvement in the learning process and, in doing so, fosters true understanding. (case study, problem-solving, reading for meaning)
Independent instruction online school is an example. Students learn at his or her own pace. Allows for further advancement. (essays, research projects, computer-assisted instruction)
Experiential instruction student-centered. The emphasis is on process, not product. Five phases, experiences, sharing, analyzing, inferring, applying (i.e. games).
Interactive instruction employs groups of learners. Before the group members “set to work” it is important for them to be aware of what they are to accomplish, how much time they have, and what the recording or reporting procedures are.
Explicit teaching involves six teaching functions: daily review, presenting new material, conducting guided practice, providing feedback and correctives, conducting independent practice, weekly and monthly review.
Drill and practice strategy refers to the structured, repetitive review of previously learning concepts to a predetermined level of mastery.
Compare and contrast strategy involves looking for similarities and differences. Students: observe details and develop criteria, identify similarities, search and sort out differences based on criteria, summarize.
Concept mapping A technique used to identify key concepts or to show the relationships between concepts.
Jigsaw students become “experts” on a topic and then meet with other “experts” to study the assigned topic.
Cooperative learning arrangement in which students work in groups and are rewarded on the basis of success of the group. Builds and environment that makes the classroom a place the learner wants to be.
Cooperative learning role functions summarizer, checker, researcher, runner, recorder, supporter, observer/troubleshooter.
Living curriculum using multimedia, often over the Internet, making a fluid and personalized learning environment.
Low-profile classroom management coping strategies teachers use to stop misbehavior without disrupting the flow of the lesson.
Metacognition self-directed learning - mental processes that assist learners to reflect on their thinking by internalizing, understanding, and recalling the content to be learned.
Metacommunication the pattern of the teacher’s body posture, language, and eye contact that is recognized by the learner and acted on according to the message being conveyed, intentionally or not.
Norm-referencing tests Compares a student’s performance to that of that of a norm group, a large, representative sample of learners.
Criterion-referenced interpretations assessments that rate how thoroughly students have mastered specific skills or areas of knowledge.
Pair or team discussions best when the task is highly structured; some consensus about the topic already exists; and the orienting instructions fully define each member’s role.
Performance assessment learners show what they know by using complex cognitive skills to perform authentic, real-world tasks; tests that measure a skill or behavior directly, as they are used in the world outside the classroom.
Portfolio assessment shows a learner’s growth in proficiency, long-term achievement, and significant accomplishments in a given academic area.
Reciprocal teaching a type of classroom group dialogue in which the teacher expects students to make predictions, ask questions, summarize, and clarify the text.
Reflective teacher a teacher who is thoughtful and self-critical about his or her teaching.
Rule-example-rule order giving a rule, then an example of the rule, then a repetition of the rule.
Think, pair, share a technique in which students working in pairs learn from one another and get to try out their ideas in a non-threatening context before presenting their ideas to the class.
Formative evaluations evaluations designed to determine whether additional instruction is needed.
Summative evaluations final evaluations of students’ achievement of an objective.
Reflective journal notebooks or pieces of paper that students use when writing about and reflecting on their own thoughts. Develops of Metacognitive skills.
Self-assessment learner diaries and dialog journals that allow a student to write about what they learned, if they mastered the content, and what they plan to do with the acquired knowledge.
Peer assessment students rate each other’s work or give feedback that does not affect grade but allows the student to make changes based on the feedback.
Incident analysis a critical incident is something which we interpret as a problem or challenge in a particular context, rather than a routine occurrence. For example, students may constantly arrive late for a class.
Portfolio a portfolio is a planned collection of learner achievement that documents what a student has accomplished and the steps taken to get there.
Critical friend A critical friends group is a professional learning community consisting of 8-12 educators who come together voluntarily at least once a month for about two hours. Group member are committed to improving their practice through collaborative learning.
Individualized Education Program (IEP) A program tailored to the needs of a learner with exceptionalities.
IEP team members Composed of school professionals such as special education teachers, supervisors, school psychologists, the principal, counselors, and/or classroom teachers.
Para educators a school employee who works under the supervision of teachers or other professional practitioners. Their jobs are instructional in nature and they provide other direct services to children and youth and their families.
Equal access all students need equal access to the tools that will help them complete their school work.
First Amendment Issues separation of church and state – pledge of allegiance says “Under God” and also prayer before sporting events prohibited.
Created by: Camilla Brittain Hernandez Camilla Brittain Hernandez on 2011-09-14



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