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Theories

Human Development, Diversity, and Behavior in the Environment I.A.

QuestionAnswer
General Systems Theory Emphasizes the impact of environment on individuals via the social systems; responsibility for change is not soley on the individual
Homeostatis Steady state order necessary for movement
Feedback When output from systems is put back into the system
Ecological Theory (Life Model) Inter-relatedness between people and the environment; fit between person and environment; holistic.
Adaptedness A continuous process of fitting in with the environment (with that culture/time period)
Stress Environmental demand; discrepancy between demand and capacity for coping
Coping Psychologica/physiological/behavioral responses to stress. Effective coping=reduced stress
Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud) Individual is a product of his past; Id, Ego, Superego
Psychic Determinism All thoughts, feelings and behaviors are related to prior experiences and events (not at random)
Id Present at birth; primitive drives/instincts; need gratifying
Ego 5 mos old; mediator between id and superego, between internal/exteral reality, defense mechanisms
Superego Age 5; conscience; sense of right/wrong; uses internal and external rewards/punishments to control the Id's impulses
Anxiety The ego cannot reconcile the Id's demands, and the supergo produces a conflict which leads to a state of psychic distress
Fixation A point in development where there is failure to resolve conflict
Unconscious (Psychoanalytic Theory) Thoughts, feeings, desires, memories of which we are unaware
Preconscious (Psychoanalytic Theory) Thoughts feeings which can be brought into consciousness easily
Conscious (Psychoanalytic Theory) Mental activities of which we are fully aware
Transference Characterized by unconscious redirection of feelings from one person to another
Countertransferance Emotional reaction, usually unconscious and often distored, on the part of the therapist to a patient or member of a family in treatment
Oral Stage (Stages of Psychosexual Development) 0-18 mos; identifies world through mouth; needs must be externally met
Anal Stage (Stages of Psychosexual Development) 18-36 mos; Elimination/retention; holding on/letting go; some self control; conflict with parents
Phallic (Oedipal) Stage (Stages of Psychosexual Development)36 mos-6 yrs; Affection directed from opposite sex parent; rivalry with same same sex parent; fear of retaliation from same sex parent
Latency Stage (Stages of Psychosexual Development) 6-11 yrs; Formal learning; peer friendships; same sex peer relationships; energy invested outside of self and family
Genital Stage (Stages of Psychosexual Development) Puberty 11-15, Adolescence 11-19; intense love; capable of sexualization; energy invested in the self
Ego Psychology (Erikson) Psychosocial Theory- personality develops as a result of interaction with the social environment
Object Relations (Ego Function) Capacity to view self as seperate from others and compelte in oneself. Capacity to relate to others.
Trust v Mistrust (Stages of Psycho-social Development, Erikson) 0-12 mos; infants assured of care; soothing
Autonomy V Shame and Doubt (Stages of Psycho-social Development, Erikson) 18-36 mos; Verbal stimulation; language; exploring
Initiative V Guilt (Stages of Psycho-social Development, Erikson) 3-6 yrs. Beginning to be away from home; plays with peers; pride; superego development; self definition.
Industry V Inferiority (Stages of Psycho-social Development, Erikson) 6-11 yrs; conformity in school; cooperation with others
Identity V Role Confusion (Stages of Psycho-social Development, Erikson) 11-18 yrs; Partial separation from parents; peer relationships are primary; conformity with group; life goals
Intimacy V Isolation (Stages of Psycho-social Development, Erikson) 19-30; leaving home; career; intimate relationshhips
Generativity V Stagnation (Stages of Psycho-social Development, Erikson) 30-65; stable family; productivity in job
Ego Integrity V Despair (Stages of Psycho-social Development, Erikson) 65+; acceptance of mortality; further self development; dealing with loss
Denial (Mechanisms of Defense) inability to aknowledge true significance of thoughts, feelings etc which are consciously intolerable
Displacement (Mechanisms of Defense) directing an impulse to not its real object permitting a less threatening expression (eg- a man angry at his boss kicks his dog)
Dissociation (Mechansims of Defense) splits mental functions; behaviors is not experienced as your own
Idealization (Mechansims of Defense) overestimated of an attribute of another
Identification (Mechansims of Defense) Patterning yourself after another; plays a major role in super ego development
Identification with aggressor (Mechansims of Defense) to counteract feelings of helplessness to feel powerful
Identification with love object (Mechansims of Defense) counteract feelings of helplessness to feel in control
Isolation of Affect (Mechansims of Defense) separating the unacceptable act from its original memory source to remove the anxiety
Projection (Mechansims of Defense) primitive; (eg- believing your spouse is angry at the kids when you are really angry yourself)
Reaction Formation (Mechansims of Defense) person acts opposite of how they feel
Regression (Mechansims of Defense) returning to infantile patterns (ego)
Splitting (Mechansims of Defense) others are "all good" or "all bad"; selective lack of impulse control; serves to protect the good objects
Devaluation (Mechansims of Defense) narcissistic personality; putting others down
Treatment for Mechanisms of Defense Enhance the ego functioning to manage stress
Object Relations Theory (Mahler) Developing a sense of self from the love object (4 Stages of Attachment, Separation, Rapprochment, Object Constancy)
Attachment (Object Relations Theory) Normal Autism (0-2/3 mos) needs others Normal Symbiosis (2 to 5/6 mos) Fusion with mother
Separation (Object Relations Theory) Hathcing (6-8/9 mos) exploration of others; stranger anxiety (7-9 mos) Practicing (9-18mos) crawling; narcissism
Rapprochment (Object Relations Theory) Beginning (15-22 mos) demands attention; resurgence of stranger anxiety; will attach to others Crisis Proper (24-30 mos) clinging; demanding Resolution of Crisis: Language; problem solving; personality development
Object Constancy (Object Relations Theory) Consolidation of Sense- memory retention; play is constructive
Cognitive Developmental Theory (Piaget) 4 stages of cognitive development which are completed around age 11
Sensorimotor (Cognitive Developmental Theory) 0-2 yrs; retains images of objects; inetntional actions; imitative play; investing meaning in an event; language
Pre-Operational (Cognitive Developmental Theory) 2-7 yrs; night terrors; imagination; thinking is egocentric
Concrete Operations (Cognitive Developmental Theory) 7-11 yrs; abstract thought; plays games with rules/fairness; cause-effect is understood; can comprehend past, present, future, logical
Formal Operations (Cognitive Developmental Theory) 11+;hypothesis testing; future planning; takes others into account; assumes adult roles
Assimilation (Piaget) Being shaped by the environment
Accommodation (Piaget) adapting to the environment
Equilibrium (Piaget) Balance between person and environment
Moral Developmental Theory (Kohlberg) Moral reasoning parallels cognitive development
Levels of Moral Reasoning Pre-conventional: seeks to avoid punishment; "right" relative to the moment Conventional: the need to look good in our own eyes and the eyes of others Post-Conventional: Do what is right for the greater good
Stages of Death and Dying (Kubler-Ross) Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance *no specific order
Social Role Theory Behaviors are prescribed relative to our position in that system; stable roles = better the system runs; involves your own, and others expectations; norms, values are emotionally charged; (relating to cultures and immigrant families)
Role Ambiguity Role expectations are unclear
Role Conflict Two or more opposing views on role definition
Role Reversal Roles are opposite to that which previously existed
Locus of Control individuals believe life events are internally or externally controlled
Social Authority or Power Coercive (power from punishments) Reward (power from rewards) Expert (power from supierior ability) Legitimate (power from legit authority)
Communication Theory One cannot NOT communicate; all human communication is multileveled (literal or implied), The message sent is not the message received (some dysfunction is normal and unavoidable)
Contradictory communication offering two or more conflicting messages on the same level (eg "I love you...no, I hate you")
Incongruent Communication offering two or more conflictin g message on different levels (eg "I love you" while pushing you away)
Ambiguous Communication Verbal and Nonverbal communication which does not tell the receiver what is going on (eg "I can't stand this!" and stomping away)
Paradoxical Communication Giving one message, and acting out another (wife telling husband to be "the head" while she makes all decisions)
Stimulous-response dilemma Communication only as a response to someone else's; no one is responsible (withdrawing because of nagging, nagging because of withdrawing)
Overload at the Content Level Too much information; split content leaves no room for an appropriate response
Problem-Solving Approach (Perlman) all human living is a problem solving procss (ego); inability to cope is d/t lack of motivation. 1. Release, energize, give direction to motivation. 2. Release, repeat coping actions 3. create opportunities/resource for a solution.
Problem Solving Approach-Process of Change Person, Problem, Place (agency), Process (therapeutic relationship)
Psychosocial Approach (Hollis) People are viewed in the context of their world; comprehensive assessment; dx based on hx; tx is according to their needs (either person or their environment or both); encompases all developmental theories and tx
Crisis Intervention (Golan) Influencing psychosocial functioning during crisis (6-8 weeks); use brief intervention; 1-relieve impact of stress; 2-return to PLOF; 3-strengthen and develop adaptive coping
Brief, Planned Treatment 8-12 sessions; uss learning theory and behavior modification; well defined task completion; quickly engage and maximize client's responsibility for outcome
Task-Centered Treatment (Reid & Epstein) Partializing the problem into clear tasks; change in behavior or change in circumstances; client must be willing to work; client identifies primary problem; (Assessment, Set Goals, Define Tasks)
Time-Limited Psychotherapy non-negotiable time-limited; makes optimal use of the "doctor-patient" relationship
Behavior Approaches Feelings are a result of behaviors, if you can change the behaviors, you can change the feelings; behavior modification is the goal; less focus on the personality, more on the behavior; (sexual dysfunction, phobia, complusive behaviors, DD, Autism)
Respondent/Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) Learning is a restult of stimulus with an involuntary response so the stimulous eventually elicits the conditioned response
Operant Conditioning (Skinner) Behavior operates on the environment; stimuli, behavior, consequences; consequences eventually decrease the behavior
Aversion therapy Tx aims to reduce the attractiveness of a behavior by paring it with an aversive stimulation
Shaping Prompting/Reinforcing the desired behavior
Modeling Individual demonstrates the behavior to the observer
Sensate Focus used in sex therapy; pleasuring
Squeeze Technique procedure for delaying ejaculation
Positive Reinforcement Increases probability that behavior will occur (Group homes)
Negative Reinforcement Behavior increases because negative stimulus is removed
Chaining Performace produces the conditions which make the next one possible
Fading gradually changing one stimulus controlling a behavior to another stimulus
Extinction Giving no respose to a behavior (ignoring it) and it will eventually stop
Prescriptions Worker tells client specifically how to behave
Cognitive Approach Cognitive skills are needed for problem solving; thoughts cause behaviors, behaviors cause feelings
Cognitive Approach, facilitating change Understand/validate client's meanings; help client consider other meanings; help client understand inaccuracies; Pay attention to client's interpretations; Constructive self talk; Give evidence to support changed views
Rational Emotive Thearapy (RET) Cognitive approach; therapist uses arguing and persuasion by teaching the client to use non-distressing statements to counter self defeating thinking
Gestalt Used with groups and individuals; experiences are part of the system
Family Therapy Family is a system of parts where change affects the whole; family is primary focus; roles/interactions/communications are the focus; Goal is to replace old patterns with new that will sustain
Issues in Family Therapy Contract; alliances; power; relationship of each member to problem; relation to outside world; hx in relation to problem; communication; rules; stress/support; homeostasis
Interventions in Family Therapy Define stages/tasks; emotional cutoffs; de-triangulation (forcing one-to-one communication); coaching; redefining roles; genogram; restructing roles; generational boundaries
Structural Family Therapy (Minuchin) Stresses family organization; worker "joins" the family to restructure it; boundaries (interpersonal, outside world, generational). Intervention's include mapping, parent training, strenthening co-parent relationship, family hierarchy.
Multi-Generational Approach (Bowen) The problem is a result of unfinished business; works to increase seperation of individuals (no triangulation). Intervention's include genogram, hx, education on the hx's impact on the current family system
Strategic Family Thearpy (Haley/Palo Alto Group) Presenting problem is a symptom of the poor family interaction; focusus on problem resolution with a specific intervention plan. Interventions include Relabeling, Paradoxical instruction
Behavior Approach Based on social learning theory/exchange theory; behavior is learned from the environment; goal is to teach ways of dealing with one another by changing the consequeneces of the behavior.
Anorexia nervousa Self starvation leading to a loss of 25% or more of body weight
Boundary a concept in Structural Family Therapy to describe emotional barriers that protecct and enhance the integrity of indivudals, subsystems, and families
Contingency Contracting A behavior therapy technique whereby agreements are made between family members to exchange rewards for desired behavior
Disengagement Psychological isolation that results from overly rigid boundaries around individuals and subsytems in a family
Double-bind A conflict created when a person gets contraciting messages in a relationships and they can't leave or comment
Enmeshment Minuchin's term for loss of freedome due to blurred psychological boundaries
Family Drawing Family members are asked to draw their ideas about how the family is organized
Family Life Cycle Stages of family life from separation from parents, to marrage, children, growing older, retirement, and death
Family Myths Set of false beliefs shared by families which shape the rules of the family
Family Rules Expected behavioral patterns in the family
Genogram Diagram of the family system
Identified patient the "symptom" bearer or as identified by the family
Operant Conditioning rewarded for behavior
Classical Conditioning Stiumulus yields response
Paradox A contradiction; a technique used in thearpy whereby the therapist tells the family to continue their symptoms and if they conform, they have control, and if they don't, they give up their symptoms
Parental (parentified child) Child who has been given power over younger siblings
Roleplaying Acting out the parts of characters to dramatize feelings, and practice new ways of reacting
Scapegoat A family member is the object of dispalced conflict/criticism
Social Group Work Group is the major helping agent; management of self; responsibility to others; release of feelings; support from others; orientation to reality
Psychodrama Tx approach in which roles are enacted in a group context and members recreate problems and help each other
Group Psychotherapy Group tx for the mentally ill
Stages of Group Development Forming (pre-affiliation; developing trust) Storming (power; freedom vs. group identification) Norming (Intimacy; utilzing self for group) Performing (Differentiation; acceptance of each other as individuals) Adjourning (Termination; independence)
Community Social Work Emphasis on environmental factors, not psych needs; stress is on prevention and social reform; involves planning and organizing.
Locality Development (Community Social Work) Macro practice; professional joins client's community; client determins need
Social Planning (Community Social Work) Evaluates strengths/weaknesses to improve quality of life
Primary Prevention Reduce prevalence of problem
Secondary Prevention To treat symptoms to reduce prevalence through early detection/intervention
Tertiary Prevention Reduce disabilty in chronic problem by reducing negative after effects
Concurrent Thearpy Tx of two or more persons, seen separately, usually by different therapists
Conjoint Therapy Tx of twho or more persons in sessions together
Person in Environment (Adams/Richmond) a dual focus on the individual, as well as social reform (environmental changes)
Genetic Theory Known as addictive inheritance, attempts to separate the genetic and environmental factors of addictive behavior.
Exposure Theory/Biological Model based on the assumption that the introduction of a substance into the body on a regular basis will inevitably lead to addiction (a consequence of biology)
Exposure Theory/Conditioning Model addiction is the cumulative result of the reinforcement of drug administration. The substance acts as a powerful reinforcer and gains control over the users behavior.
Adaptation Theory include the psychological, environmental and social factors that influence addiction. Advocates of these theories have analyzed how expectations and beliefs about what a drug will do for the user influence the rewards and behaviors associated with its use
Effects of Life Crisis an upset steady state, a meaningful stressful event resulting in disequilibrium; family may be vulnerable, at a "turning point", anxiety, tension, emotionally overtaxed, hopless, ego patters are more open to influence and correction
4 mos. balance head at 90 degree angle, lifts head/chest when placed on stomach, recognize bottle, mothers, other faces, turns head to sound, cooing
8 mos. Sits alone, stands with assist, feeds self, imitates facial expressions, babbling, copying sounds
1 yr. Crawls well, stands alone, explores, drinks from cup, feeds self with fingers, bowel/bladder control, enjoys an audience, undertands simple commands
18 mos. Walks, holds own glass, cooperates with dressing, enjoys other children but plays alone, affection, more than three, but less than 50 words
2 yrs. Walks/runs, stairs, throws ball overhead, listens/follows directions, assits in dressing, daytime bathroom control, plays along side others, seeks adult approval, names common pictures, in-depth exploration, 2-3 words together, more than 50 words
4 yrs. Physically active, dresses self, asks questions, in the process of separating from parents, name calling, misuse words
5 yrs. Quieter, less active, dresses/undresses, aware of rules, conforming, team playing, pretends, words, counting
Puberty for girls 8-13 yrs; full height by 17 yrs, wider in pelvic/hip areas, menarche
Puberty for boys 10-15 yrs, full height by 21, wider, longer in shoulders, legs, forearms, spermarche
Nocturnal Emissions 1/month, usually stops after age 30, normal occurance
Boy Gender Roles Don't cry, strong, brave, athletics, enthralled with girls/sex
Girl Gender Roles always looking for spouse, popular, attractive, flexible, considerate, cars for others
Created by: avermeulen on 2011-09-06



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