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FDLE OBJ- TRAF CRASH

FDLE TRAFFIC CRASH INVESTIGATIONS

QuestionAnswer
BoB
The location of the first harmful event, or the first damage-producing event in a traffic crash Area of collision (AOC)
Law enforcement's responsibility to control and normalize a traffic crash scene Crash management
The first damage-producing event in a traffic crash. It determines the exact time, location, and type of crash First harmful event
A collision involving one or more vehicles, which causes personal injury, property damage, or death, and which is the result of an unintentional act Traffic crash
A Latin term meaning the "body of the offense" describing the legal principle that claims it must be proven that a crime has occurred before a person can be convicted of committing that crime Corpus delicti
The point at which the vehicles in a traffic crash separate, either naturally or artificially Disengagement
When two objects begin to enter the same space at the same time Encroachment
The point when all activity from the traffic crash comes to a halt Final rest
The point in time when the crash is inevitable, no matter what evasive actions the drivers may attempt Point of no escape
The earliest possible time the driver could have become aware of a potential danger or hazard Point of possible perception
The length of time from when a person perceives a given situation as a hazard to when he or she reacts to his or her perception Reaction time
Any action the driver takes that alters the speed or direction of the vehicle, such as applying the brakes or turning the steering wheel Start of evasive action
The pattern left by a vehicle with anit-lock brakes that results from hard braking ABS scuff marks
Dark marks, resulting from rapid acceleration, that gradually fade Acceleration scuff marks
The loos material that is strewn about the area as the result of a traffic collision Debris
A measure of the friction generated between a vehicle tire and the road surface Drag factor (coefficient of friction)
A trench dug by locked tires when a car is driven on a soft surface such as gravel, sand, or dirt Furrow mark
Occurs when a metal vehicle part cuts into and removes the road surface Gouge
A portion of the skid mark that represents the most effective breaking of the wheel Incipient skid mark
Damage to a vehicle other than contact damage, often occurring as bending, breaking, crumpling, and distortion of the vehicle Induced damage
A series of skid marks with long gaps (30 feet or more) between heavy skid marks Intermittent skid marks
The phase of brake application beginning with pedal depression and ending with any resulting change in wheel rotational velocity Mechanical delay
The slowest speed a vehicle can travel to leave skid marks on the roadway surface Minimum speed
A skid mark indicating an abrupt change of direction of a tire due to collision forces Offset marks
Any damage to a vehicle that was present before the crash Pre-existing damage
The one element or action which describes the primary cause of a crash Primary collision factor
A fluid or pool of fluids escaping from a vehicle as a result of impact Runoff
A broad area of hard surface covered with many scratches, striations, or streak marks made without great pressure by a sliding metal part Scrape
A mark caused by the tires of a vehicle that negotiates a curve too fast and slides off the curve Scuff or yaw mark (critical speed mark)
A hand-drawn picture of the crash scene as an officer perceives it upon arrival Sketch
A black mark left by a tire that slides and cannot rotate Skid mark
A series of skid marks usually short in length with irregular intervals between them Skip skid mark
Begins at the end of mechanical delay and ends when the total four-wheel lockup or skid begins Spin-down
The strip of dry pavement left after a vehicle skids on a wet roadway Squeegee mark
The marks a vehicle can leave on roadways Surface mark
The mark left by a tire that rolls over a soft material, such as sand, dirt, or a liquid , such as oil that is distributed over a hard surface, leaving an identifiable pattern matching the tread of the tire Tire print
The movement of the vehicle during and after collision Vehicle dynamics
A set of forms provided by the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles (HSMV 90003,90004,90005) used to record a narrative and crash diagram for a traffic crash Long Form
A for provided by the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles (HSMV 90006) for the purpose of documenting a traffic crash Short Form
The direct cause or contribution to a crash Contributing traffic violation
A traffic violation that has not bearing on the cause of the crash Non-contributing traffic violation
A violation that has nothing to do with traffic or the traffic crash Non-traffic violation
A portion of the skid mark that represents the most effective breaking of the wheel Incipient skid mark or impending skid mark
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As defined in Fl 316.03- every device in, upon,or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway, excepting devices used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks Vehicle
As defined in Fl 316.03- any self-propelled vehicle not operated upon rails or guide way, but not including any bicycle, motorized scooter, electric personal assistive mobility device, or moped Motor vehicle
As defined in Fl 316.03- Any person afoot Pedestrian
ST/highway designed for traffic /through/over/from/ or to which owners or occupants of abutting land or other persons have no right or easement(E), or only limited right or (E), of access/light/air/view, cause their property abuts limited access facility As defined in Fl 316.03- Limited access facility
As defined in Fl 316.03- Except as otherwise provided in para (53)(b), any privately owned way or place used for vehicular travel by the owner and those having express or implied permission from the owner, but not by other persons Private road or driveway
As defined in Fl 316.03- Any highway designated as a state-maintained road by the Department of Transportation State road
Portion of highway improved/designed/ ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the berm or shoulder; if a highway includes 2 or more separate roadways, term roadway refers to any such roadway separately, but no to all roadways collectively As defined in Fl 316.03- Roadway
As defined in Fl 316.03- The entire width between the boundardy lines of every way or place of whatever nature when any part therof is open to the use of the publice for purposes of vehicular traffic Street or highway
As defined in Fl 316.03- Entire width between the boundary lines of any privately owned way or place used for vehicular travel by owner and those having expressed or implied permission from owner, but not by other persons Street or highway
As defined in Fl 316.03- any area, such as runway/taxiway/ramp/clear zone/ or parking lot, within the boundary of any airport owned by the state, county, municipality or political subdivision, used for vehicular traffic but not open to public Street or highway
Any way or place used for vehicular traffic on a controlled access basis within a mobile home park recreation district which has been created under section 418.30 and the recreational facilities of which district are open to the general public As defined in Fl 316.03- Street or highway
Area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curblines: 2 highways join one another at, or approx. at, right angles; or the area within which vehicles traveling upon different highways joining at any other angle may come in conflict As defined in Fl 316.03- Intersection
Where highway includes 2 roadways 30 feet or more apart, in event such intersecting highway also includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing of 2 roadways of such highways shall be regarded as a separate intersection As defined in Fl 316.03- Intersection
Part or a roadway at an intersection included within the connections of the lateral lines of the sidwalks on opposite sides of the highway, measured from the curbs, in absence of curbs; from the edges of the traverasble roadway As defined in Fl 316.03- Intersection
Portion of a street between the curbline, or the lateal line, of a roadway and the adjacent property lines, intended for use by pedestrians As defined in Fl 316.03- Sidewalk
Any road/path/way that is open to bicycle travel, which road/path/way is physically separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an open space or by a barrier and is located either within the highway right-of-way or within an independent right-of-way As defined in Fl 316.03- Bicycle path
Any injury to any person, including the driver, which consists of a physical condition that creates a substantial risk of death, serious personal disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ As defined in Fl 316.03- Seriously bodily injury
An injury resulting in an individual's death within a 30 day period after the traffic crash accident As defined in Fl 316.03- Fatal injury
Visible/non-visible signs of injury, such as bleeding wound or distorted memeber, usually requiring hospitalization and transport to a medical facility As defined in Fl 316.03- Incapacitating injury
Visible/non-visible signs of injury or complaint of injury, not requiring transport from the scene As defined in Fl 316.03- Non-incapacitating injury
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A crash scene can quickly become out of control if it involves: Fire, hazardous materials or chemicals
An officer must take control of a traffic crash situation and conduct the resulting investigation quickly and efficiently, this process is referred to as: Crash management
The crash management process involves the following steps: Step 1 Respond to the traffic crash safely
The crash management process involves the following steps: Step 2 Assess the scene of the crash
The crash management process involves the following steps: Step 3 Secure a safe work environment at the crash scene
The crash management process involves the following steps: Step 4 Provide emergency assistance to injured persons if necessary
The crash management process involves the following steps: Step 5 Obtain pertinent information
The crash management process involves the following steps: Step 6 Investigate the crash to determine the cause
The crash management process involves the following steps: Step 7 Return the scene to normal as quickly as possible
The crash management process involves the following steps: Step 8 Conclude enforcement action
After receiving the call the officer should obtain as much information as possible about the crash location such as: Street names, address, mile marker, etc.
Upon approachin the traffic crash scene an officer should view it from a distance to determine its: Type and extent
Officer must be aware of some of the several potential dangers that he or say may encounter at the crash site, examples are: Fire, fluids on the ground, clouds of gases and/or smoke, or people running away , falling down, or lyiing injured in the roadway
Officers must be aware of hazards that may harm them, such as: Additional crashes, hazardous materials, and electrocution from downed wires, flooding, or caveins from damaged retaining walls.
Crash debris poses additional threats to both: Vehicles and pedestrian traffic
Before approaching the scene of a crash officers should determine if the vehicle's contents are hazardous by locating the placard on the vehicle and referring to: The Department of Transportation Emergency Response Guide (DOT ERG) to verify contents
If contents are hazardous on a vehicle that is involved in a crash officers should: Follow agency policy regarding handling procedures
Although officers know how to perform first aid, direct traffic, and interview witnesses, they cannot do all of this at the same same time and must decide which additional units, if any, are needed such as: Fire department, Emergency Medical Services (EMS), Department of Transportation (DOT) Motor Carrier Compliance, or hazardous matierals (HAZMAT) team
An officer can determine the path of the vehicles involved in a crash by examining: The marks and debris left by the vehicles
The crash scene should be handled by the jurisdiction where the: First harmful event happened
The Area of Collision (AOC) may be indicated by: Crash debris, fixed property damage, broken glass, gouge marks, and scape marks
When jurisdiction of a traffic crash cannot be determined this agency may be called: Florida Highway Patrol, since they have statewide jurisdiction
Officer's must search for evidence that places the driver behind the wheel at the time of the crash, such evidence includes: Skin and blood found on deployed airbags, bruises or scratches on an injured person's head that are consistent with damage to the windshield, and/or fingerprints on the steering wheel or the keys in the ignition
When officers are dealing with vehicle fires they should always: Request assistance
An officer should always attach the fire with the wind to his or her back and never turn, but should: Back away from the fire
People should be evacuated away from a small vehicle fire if there are no other hazards present to a distance of: 20 to 25 feet
If hazards hazards such as, toxic fumes or the rish that the fire could reach gas tanks, are present at a vehicle fire the DOT Emergency Response Guide (ERG) recommends a minimum evacutaion of: 80 to 160 feet in all directions
When deciding on a safe location to evacuate people from a vehicle fire officers must consider: Location, buildings in the area, amount of traffic, and weather (if there is any breeze people should be upwind)
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Traffic crashes attract motorists' attention which slows the traffic flow by causing: "Gawking" or "rubber necking"
Traffic conditions either day or night can sometimes reduce crash scene visibility making it hard to see, those conditions include: Heavy traffic, speed limits, or movement on and off the roadway
Whenever possible so officers wil see hazardous situations as they develop should: Work facing oncoming traffic
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Safe distance for hazardous materials is determined by the: Type of hazardous material involved (DOT ERG)
"Extent of the scene" at the crash site is the area between the first signs of evidence of crash avoidance or damage to vehicles or property and the final resting places of vehicles, property, and debris including: Immediate surrounding area for access to the scene
The purpose a roadblock is to: Prevent injury or damage to motorists and protect the road or crash scene from further damage or contamination
When investigating a traffic crash that blocks or damages the roadway it is necessary to notify both: Dispatch and a supervisor of the obstruction and roadblock location and request assistance to temporarily re-route traffic
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What phase is the earliest possible time the driver could have become aware of a potential danger or hazard, point of possible perception, occur: Pre-collision
Occurs when 2 or more objects begin to enter the same space at the same time: Encroachment
F.S. 322.15 requires every licensee when driving a motor vehicle to carry their: License and exhibit it upon the demand of a law enforcement officer
Officers according to provisions in F.S. 316.066 shall instruct the driver of each vehicle involved to report the following to all other parties suffering injury or property damage as an apparent result of the crash: 1) Name and address of the owner and the driver of the vehicle. 2) License number of the vehicle, and the name of the liability insurance carrier for the vehicle
Officers should remember that these people are not required or legally obligated to give any information or provide a statement about the crash but should impress upon them that their help, although voluntary is important and appreciated: Witness and passengers
A criminal investigation for Driving Under the Influence (DUI) should be done if an officer sees: Indicators of impairment
Drivers not having the right to refuse to answer questions about a crash since nothing they say to the investigating officer can be used against them in court is known as: "Crash privilege"
"Crash privilege" exists so that the drivers will give the full information required to complete a crash investigation witout fear of: Self-incrimination
If an officer investigating a crash has reason to believe that one of the drivers was driving under the influence the officer must: Seperate the crash investigation from the criminal DUI investigation.
After the crash investigation is completed the officer begans what is known as the changing of the hats which means: Th officer is going from a crash investigator to a criminal investigator, means crash privilege no longer applies
The officer must specifically tell the suspect driver that tha criminal invertigation is beginning and anything the driver say may be used in court against the driver, therefore: Miranda warnings required before incriminating answers and that the driver is not free to go
The prosecutor must be able to prove two things to obtain a conviction: Crime was committed and defendant committed it (Corpus Delicti)
If the suspect admits after Miranda that he or she was driving the vehicle that admission: Can be used in court to establish the corpus delicti
When dealing with evidence these should be identified and measured first: Temporary and short-lived
This type of evidence lasts only a few minutes, example is squeegee marks: Temporary evidence
This type of evidence lasts several hours or days: Short-lived evidence
Examples of short-term evidence include: Tire prints, skid-mark smears, furrows, puddles(gas/oil/water), vehicle debris, vehicle position in roadway, vehicle position off a roadway, position of injured or deceased people
Examples of evidence at a crash that would last longer than a few days include: Roadway dimensions, sight distances, grade or slope, locations of traffic-control devices, and distances between landmarks. These should be measured as soon as possible
Vehicle damage falls into 3 types: Contact, induced and pre-existing
Is damage to a vehicle resulting from the direct pressure of any object in a collision or rollover: Contact damage
Usually appears as scrape marks or striations on the body of the vehicle, material rub-off (paint transfer), rubber or tree bark, or as a puncture to or imprint on a bumper, guard rail, or other fixed object Contact damage
This type of vehicle damage is usually identifiable as damage that does not fit the pattern of the crash or damage that appears rusted, dirty or weathered Pre-existing damage
This crash evidence is a result when a bolt on the underside of a vehicle cuts into the pavement on the road surface at the area of impact Gouge
While no pinpointing the exact location of the AOC, does give the general location Runoff
All vehicles tend to accumulate road grime, grease, dust, or other foreign matter and dirt on their undercarriage that falls downward and in the directions of the force is known as: Debris
Front skid marks tend to be this compared to the rear tire marks Darker
This breaking point of braking leaves a discoloration on the roadway and is where the tires cease tire rotation before skid marks beging: Incipient skid mark
The beginning of this part of skid is the start of the skid mark that should be measured Skid mark loading point
This pattern is caused by rapidly applying and releasing the brakes Intermittent skid marks
This pattern appears when a vehicle has a sudden load shift while braking hard and causes a bouncing, more typical of vehicles with trailers Skip skid mark
Occurs when a vehicle loses tire traction in a turn or curve as a result of entering a curve too fast or over steering and slides off the curve Scuff or Yaw mark
Determining the AOC involves examining the scene of the crash and the surrounding areas for: Marks, debris and damage
Information on the behavior of the drivers in the crash situation and what each person believed was the cause of the crash can come from statements by: Passengers and witnesses
Skid marks to measure include: Plain skid marks, the incipient skid, offset skids, skip skids and intermittent skids
Intermittent skid marks are not continuous (less than 3 to 4 feet apart), they may have been made by a vehicle bouncidn along the roadway, this condition can result when the wheel strikes: A pothole or bump in the roadway (Martinez)
A common crash cause is: Excessive speed
By accurately measuring the skid marks and applying the skid formula (S= square root^ 30df) the officer can determine the: Minimum speed that a vehicle was traveling to leave the skid marks
Is defined as the slowest speed the vehicle could have been traveling to leave the skid markds on the roadway surface Minimum speed
Created by: goarmy on 2010-07-19



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