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WGU 371

Praxis 0371

QuestionAnswer
Conditions preceding a behavior Antecedent
Unpleasent consequences contingent on the occurance of a targeted negative behavior. Aversive Procedure
Statement that identifies the learner, conditions, targeted behavior and acceptable performance. Behavioral Objective (Behavior Analysis)
Actions that may be required of a student if he breaks a contract. Consequences (Glasser)
Positive reinforcement strengthens a response by adding a positive stimulus, then response cost has to weaken a behavior by subtracting a positive stimulus Response Cost
uses positive reinforcement to differentiate or separate appropriate student behavior from inappropriate behavior by increasing one while decreasing the other. Differential Reinforcement
Tasks are broken down into smaller tasks. Very monitored and intensive. Discrete Learning Trial
It is a process of gradually reducing the need, strength or level of the prompt. Fading
To stop an undesirable behavior, a desired behavior is provided. Fair-Pair Rule
Used as positive support when a student displays positive behavior. Feedback
demonstrating the action or skill desired and tapping into the child’s imitation skills Modeling
Everyday happenings that teachers use, because of negative consequences, as examples of unacceptable behavior. (i.e., touching a hot stove) Natural Consequences (Dreikurs/Adlerian)
A student must display positive behavior to avoid an aversive stimulus. (A treat is offered if positive behavior is displayed but will be removed if it is not) Negative Reinforcement
To eliminate an inapropriate behavior, the student is required to perform the desired action over and over until it becomes habitual. Overcorrection
process involves goal identification, information gathering, hypothesis development, support plan design, implementation and monitoring. Positive Behavioral Support
Is observed when a behavior(either good or bad) is followed by a consequence that increases the behavior's likelihood of reoccurring. Positive Reinforcement
a systematic way of anticipating and addressing inappropriate social or academic behaviors Pre-Correction
Student is rewarded for desired behavior Premack Principle (Grandma-Principal)
a cue or hint meant to help a child to perform a desired behavior, skill, or part of a skill Prompt
Teaching new behavior by reinforcers, gradually approximating the target behavior. Shaping
Students earn tokens for meeting classroom expectations that they can exchange for rewards. Token Economy
Diagnostic & Statistical Manual DSM
Other Heatlh Impaired OHI
Direct Instruction DI
Regular Education Initiative REI
are based either on the passage of time (interval schedules) or number of correct responses emitted (ratio schedules)when behavior is followed by a consequence. Intermitten Schedule
the first correct response after a set amount of time has passed is reinforced (i.e., a consequence is delivered). The time period required is always the same. Fixed Interval Schedule
the first correct response after a set amount of time has passed is reinforced. After the reinforcement, a new time period (shorter or longer) is set with the average equaling a specific number over a sum total of trials. Variable Interval Schedule
a reinforcer is given after a specified number of correct responses. This schedule is best for learning a new behavior Fixed Ratio Schedule
a reinforcer is given after a set number of correct responses. After reinforcement the number of correct responses necessary for reinforcement changes. This schedule is best for maintaining behavior Variable Ratio Schedule
One individual (or a small group) earns a privilege or reward for peers by behaving appropriately Dependent Group Contingency
Individuals earn reinforcement when they achieve a goal established for the group. The same contingency applies to each student. However, one student’s behavior does not impact the group outcome. Independent Group Contingency
The class, or a group within the class, earns a special reward when every individual in the identified group meets an established goal Interdependent Group Contingency
Antecedents, Behavior and Consequences ABC Technique
is supposed to work on a system of reinforcement and punishment (i.e., reinforcement for behavior to be increased, punishment for behavior to be discouraged.) Operant Conditioning
the teaching process moves from the last part of the task to the beginning.This technique is used when it is easier to teach a child a task from the last step than from the beginning. Backward Chaining
The time that is allotted for different subjects or other components of a daily schedule at school. Allocated Learning Time
Involves withdrawing something generally considered pleasant, or delivering something generally considered unpleasent. Aversive Control
a simulas that is generally considered unpleasant Aversive Stimulus
Level of performance at the start of Data collecting Baseline Data
a procedure in which individual responses are reinforced for occuring in sequence to form a complex behavior. Behavioral Chaining
characteristics are (1)focuses on behavior that can be seen/hear (2)studies the environmental influences on behavior (3)uses single subject designes to experiment with different environmental arrangements to determine which are most effective Behavior Analysis
the modification of observable and measurable operant (voluntary) behavior using systematic procedures. Behavior Modification
procedures effective in changing behavior (reinforcement, negative reinforcement, shaping and token economy is used to increase behaviors, whereas methods such as punishment & extinction are used to decrease behaviors) Behavior Modification Procedures
a method for increasing student engaged learning time by having students teach other students Collaborative Learning
a stimulus that has been paired with an aversive event, thus presenting a negative association. Conditional Aversive Presentation
a class of stimuli which a person learns to experience as aversive, as a result of pairing with an unconditioned aversive stimulus Conditioned Aversive Stimuli
through the process of pairing a primary reinforcer with a secondary reinforcer, the person becomes reinforced (or motivated) by the secondary reinforcer Conditioning
the planned, systematic relationship between a behavior and a consequence Contingency
the systematic use of reinforcement and punishment to develop, maintain, or change behavior Contingency Management
a schedule of reinforcement in which every response in reinforced; This technique is generally used when a person is first learning a behavior, particularly in shaping procedures Continuous Schedule
a method of structuring small groups of non-disabled and disabled studednts so that all the individuals achieve a learning goal through mutual planning and decision making Cooperative Learning
the more a consequential event is withheld from a person, the more effective it will be Deprivation
behavior outside what is normally expected for a particular situation Deviant
a procedure for decreasing the rate of a behavior by stopping the delivery of a reinforcer Extinction
a tailored instructional plan that links each learning component to the student's learning style, ability, and rate of progress Individualized Instruction
a schedule of reinforcement in which not every response is reinforced; these schedules maintain behavior that has been learned Intermittent Schedule
the physical setting and environment in which the student is instructed, along with emotional and socialogical elements that influence how the student learns Learning Environment
the environmental, emotional, sociological, and physical elements that influence how a student learns most effectively Learning Style
a here-and-now behavioral intervention built around a child's life experience that is applied in an effort toward increasing conscious awareness of distorted perceptions Life Space Interview
behavioral interventions in which body language or signaling is used Nonverbal Interactions
the active involvement of a student as he or she teaches or guides one or several other students in a particular subject area Peer tutoring
a technique where the teacher simply ignores the disruptive behavior; it is generally true that when attention-seeking behaviors are ignored, they become non functional and decrease in frequency Planned Ignoring
a reinforcer necessary for human survival/a stimulas connected to a biological need Primary Reinforcer
where the use of proximity results in the discontinuation of unacceptable behaviors Proximity Control
A behavioral intervention that uses drama and role playing to help clarify feelings and emotions as they relate to existing reality Psychodrama
a procedure in which an event follows a behavior and decreases the probability or rate of that behavior Punishment
an event that follows the behavior and decreases the probability or rate of Punisher
a behavioral interventiona that focuses on present behavior and uses confrontational questioning, (what, how, why) to assist an individual in taking responsibility for his behavior Reality Therapy
a procedure in which an event follows a behavior and the probability or rate of that behavior Reinforcement
an event that follows the behavior and increases the probability or rate of that behavior Reinforcer
the more a person receives, or is satisfied with a consiquential event, the less effective it will be. Satiation
statement of the contingencies on which reinforcement depends Schedules of reinforcement
a conditioning reinforcer is established by pairing a stimulus with a primary reinforcer; it then takes on the reinforcing qualities of the primary reinforcer Secondary Reinforcer
the ability of an individual to focus upon selected tasks or components of instruction Selective Attention
nonverbal techniques or signals, such as eye contact, a frown, finger snapping, toe tapping, book snapping, light flicking, and so on, that elert a child or a group to their unacceptable behavior Signal Interference
the rules an guidelines by which a classroom operates Structure
a new behavior targeted for change Target Behavior
the removal of a student from a reinforcing environment Time-Out
a behavioral approach to understanding human behavior based on the assumption that human beings can be rational and that anyone can learn to have trust in himself, think for himself, make his own decisions, and express personal feelings Transactional Analysis
any method that is used in an attempt to increase (accelerate) or decrease (decelerate) a behavior Treatment
a class of stimuli tht results in physical pain or discomfort to the person Unconditional Aversive Stimuli
behavioral interventions in which spoken communication is employed Verbal Interventions
The 3 major categories that relate to the causes for the existence of an ED/BD are those that stem from________ factors. biological, environmental, or at-risk
The education of children with emotional & behavioral conditions has been influenced by factors of____________. religion, science, philosophy, politics, and laws.
Council for Exceptional Children CEC
inability to learn, relationship problems, inappropriate behaviors, unhappiness or depression, and physical symptoms or fears. Common symptoms of children with ED/BD
exhibit problems with mood and anxiety revealed through phobias, eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and bipolar disorder. May self-injure or attempt suicide. Internalizing Behaviors
must common of the disorded behaviors and generally involve aggressive behaviors such as fighing, stealing, destroying property, temper tantrums, and other noticable noncompliant or inappropriate acts. Externalizing Behaviors
it is probable that the child will become delinquent during adolescence with behaviors such as substance abuse, dropping out of school, and confrontations with the legal system. Child demonstrates a pattern of antisocial behavior early in life. (Externalizing Behavior)
Five important patterns typical of individuals with BD/ED aggression, anxiety, depression, impulsiveness and relationship problems.
the Psychological category of BD/ED includes ______. neuroses, psychoses, anxiety and depression.
Students in this catagory may be considered to have social phobias and mood disorders such as panic disorders, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological category of BD/ED.
Students may feel scared, worried, guilty, or stressed and may think they are losing control, being criticized or dying. Psychological category of BD/ED
These students have problems with their peers as they are avoided and taunted by others. Psychological category of BD/ED
pertain to social-emotional development, interpersonal skills, and relationship problems. Affective category of
The four major BD/ED behavior categories are Psychological, Affective, Adaptive/Maladaptive Behaviors, and Distractibility, Hyperactivity, and Impulsivity.
students with this behavior maybe afraid, unhappy, lonely, rejected, or withdrawn. Affective Behaviors
The affective components of this disorder may be co-morbid with depression, aggression, and anxiety disorders. Affective Behaviors
The adaptive and maladaptive behaviors formed may consist of ______________. self-injurious behaviors, eating disorders, substance abuse, aggression, social maladjustment, disruptive behavior disorders, and delinquency.
These aggressive behaviors are regularly imposed to inflict harm, injury, or pain toward others without taking responsibility for their own behavior nor guilt. Adaptive/Maladaptive Behaviors
Individuals with this behavioral disorder may demonstrate disobedience, disrespect, harassing behaviors, destruction of property, fighting, disruption, stealing and bullying. Adaptive/Maladaptive Behaviors
This behavior disorder is more apparent when a child is placed in a controlled setting where structure, prosocial behavior, and attention are required. BD/ED: Distractibility, Hyperactivity, and Impulsivity.
This behavior can cause a student to be inattentive, to give inappropriate responses, and demonstrate over--activity BD/ED: Distractibility, Hyperactivity, and Impulsivity.
Students with this behavior disorder may appear agitated and disorganized, while they ignore directions, are abrupt and rude, make poor choices, and are often disliked by peers. BD/ED: Distractibility, Hyperactivity, and Impulsivity.
Most profesionals believe that these two main categories reflect the causes of BD/ED Environmental and Biological
Factors associated with behavior in the family, at school and in the commmunity setting. behavioral issues may develope due to deprivation during a child's early years in any of these three settings. Environmental Factors
Factors that may contribute to BD/ED include brain disorders (from abnormal development, trauma, or disease) genetic influences (mental illnesses), and temperament (how an individual responds to environmental stimuli) Biological Factors
Another factor that contributes to the BD/ED may include poverty, parent criminality, abuse, media violence and so on. At-Risk Factor
Primary term used for BD/ED in federal definition. Emotional Disturbance
the 5 conditions defined under IDEIA for ED/BD which must be exhibited over a long period of time and affect a child's educational performance. inability to learn not caused by intellectual, sensory or health factors/inability to maintain relationships with teachers or peers/inappropriate behavior or feelings/unhappiness or depression/physical symptoms or fear of personal or school problems.
Council for Exceptional Children-Council for Children with Behavior Disorders CEC-CCBD
prefers the term "behaviorally disordered" to the federal definition of "emotionally disturbed" CEC-CCBD
National Mental Health and Special Education Coalition HMHSEC
disabilty must be related to school programs & compared to appropriate age & cultural norms with response adversely affecting education performance on more than a temporary level, unresponsive to direct instruction & exhibited in two settings. The proposed redefinition of characteristics of ED/BD by the CEC-CCBD and NMHSEC.
Condition may co-exist with other disability conditions. The proposed redefinition of characteristics of ED/BD by the CEC-CCBD and NMHSEC.
The term may include schizophrenic disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, or other sustained disorder of conduct or adjustment. The proposed redefinition of characteristics of ED/BD by the CEC-CCBD and NMHSEC.
Theoretical models of service for a child with BD/ED. Behavioral, psychoanalytic, ecological, sociological, cognitive, humanistic, biogenic, person-centered, reality based, and social discipline.
Approaches found in the Psychodynamic Model Pyschoanalysis, Social Disipline, Person-Centered, Reality-Based and Psychoeducational.
Psychoanalysis Approach (Psychodynamic Model) Is an approach to be used only by trained therapists.
based on Sigmund Freud's work Psychoanalysis Approach (Psychodynamic Model)
This approach deals with personality and its development through various stages, and includes work focused on the three parts called id, ego and superego Psychoanalysis Approach (Psychodynamic Model)
the approach schools rely on as they conduct functional behavior assessments (FBA). Social Dicipline Approach (Psychodynamic Model)
this approach is based on the premis that behaviors are goal related. Social Dicipline Approach (Psychodynamic Model)
Dreikurs established four goals that represent the purpose of students behaviors. attention seeking, power, revenge and helplessness. (Social Dicipline Approach )(Psychodynamic Model)
this approach focuses on caring, cooperation, organization, community, and prevention. Person-Centered Approach (Psychodynamic Model)
this approach had its beginnings with the work of Glasser. The idea is to help students act rationally and improve through the four major needs: love, power, pleasure, and freedom. Reality Therapy, also called Choice Therapy (Psychodynamic Model)
this approach is a combination of the Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic models, based on the theory that behavior is a result of past experiences, current state of being and invironmental influences Psychoeducational Approach (Psychodynamic Model)
this approach believes that if a child's biological needs and emotional needs are not balanced, personality disorders may emerge. Psychoeducational Approach (Psychodynamic Model)
this approach is most often used in schools as it reflects caring and discipline, while communicating expectations. Psychoeducational Approach (Psychodynamic Model)
This model is based on Operant Conditioning and the belief that behavior is related to the environmental stimuli either preceding it or following it. Behavioral Model
this model incompasses the ABC technique. (antecedent - behavior-consequence) Behavioral Model
Interventions that promate the behavioral approach. token economy, behavioral contracting, social skills training, self-management, time-out, group contingencies and positive reinforcement.
based on the social-cognitive theory by Albert Bandura which relates to the process of modeling or imitating desired behaviors Cognitive Model
also called the Cognitive-Behavioral Approach Cognitive Model
this model believes that cognition, behavior and environmental stimuli are interactive and influence one other Cognitive Model
the 3 influences on this theory are: Individuals behavior(motor & verbal abilities, thoughts, so on), Environmental events (physical & social prompts, modeling, so on), and personal phenomena (beliefs, perceptions, so on) Cognitive Model
The 4 subprocesses are outlined in this theory: attention, retention, response reproduction and motivation. Cognitive Model
Interventions for this theory include: appropriate modeling, support cognitive skill development, provide social problem solving skills, anger control, social skills & modify distortions of information processing, attributes & beliefs. Cognitive Model
this model addressess the social aspects & differences in individuals and subgroups according to the socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, culture and social causations. (economic injustice, discrimination) Sociological Model
Interventions for this model include: deliver services in culturally aware environments, educate teachers on cultural perspectives, reduce bias on assessments, advocate government & agencies to reduce undesirable circumstances in society Socialogical Model
This model is concerned with smaller environments such as the classroom or a school Ecological Model
This theory is baed on the study of relationships in the ecosystem and how a student's behavior fits within the environment and is influenced by physical, social and cognitive aspects Ecological Model
Interventions for this model include changes in range of physical, social, behavioral and psychological variables Ecological Model
This theory, based on Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning, is most often tied to mental health agencies and their services to students with BD/ED. Values-Based/Spiritual Model
This theory also includes the Circle of Courage program which focuses on 4 basic needs: belonging, mastery, independence and generosity. Values-Based/Spiritual Model
Drug/alcohol abuse by family, sexual abuse, neglect, lack of proper nutrition & medical attention, aggressive behavior by family, criminal behavior by family, & emotional and physical abuse. Situations that may contribute to BD/ED
coordination of services both inside and outside the school system "system of care"
The purpose of an assessment process To gather info about a student to determine his strengths and needs.
Most assessments for students with BD/ED measure both ____________. reported functioning and actual functioning
Important pieces in an evaluation of a student who may be BD/ED. physical, medical, academic, social, & environmental ariables, as well as behavioral & emotional factors.
this assessment will support the development of a positive behavioral support system & plan by evaluating the problem behavior. This may include interviews with familiar adults, observation of student, & analysis of the problem behavior Functional Assessment
this assessment gathers info so the IEP team may more fully understand the student's behaviors. FBA (Functional Behavior Assessment)
this assessment measures the social and environmental variables surrounding a target behavior. FBA (Functional Behavior Assessment)
This assessment is required under IDEIA for all sp ed students if the behavior impedes the student's learning or that of others FBA (Functional Behavior Assessment)
a checklist or questionnaire with a standard list of items that describes certain characteristics of emotions and behaviors. Behavior Rating Scale
This method should be conducted by someone trained and skilled in the process. Interview Method
a standard set of questions are used and the responses are compared to norms High-Structured Interview
a specific set of quesitons that pertain to the individual student's situation are used. Low-Stuctured Interview
This measurement is used to analyze how an idividual feels, thinks, and behaves in a variety of situations. Personality Measurements
This method offers a clear view in which to measure a behavior in frequency, duration, time, magnitude and location. Observation Method
Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale BERS
Behavior Assessment System for Children BASC
Which 2 informational reports are used when sharing evaluation results of a student with BD/ED. Reported Function Report and Actual Function Report
This report includes info gathered by the teacher or other professionals and includes the parents and studente. May also include school records, testing and assignments Reported Function Report
This report includes info gathered by observation method during classroom/school settings with comparison to behaviors and actions of typical students in the same circumstance. Actual Funtion Report
Instructional strategies and methods used with students who are identified as BD/ED are: chart behaviors for analysis, intervention plans, home communication, peer assistance or tutoring, consistent standards and exploring task analysis.
promotes positive behavior for all children school-wide-behavior support systems
Methods that work to manage the behavior of students with BD/ED. behavioral contracts, behavior intervention plans, positive reinforcements, behavior modification systems, group contingencies, token economy programs and self-managemnt programs.
Proactive Strategies Planned Interventions
Strategies that aid in classroom management Shaping, contingency contracts, planned ignoring, reinforcements and overcorrection
5 patterns of ED/BD aggression, anxiety, depression, impulsivity, relationship problems
Two principals required by IDEIA that may impact the implementation of proper interventions and instruction of BD/ED students LRE and FAPE
A term used for a type of positive reinforcement that should minimize or eliminate a specific, inappropriate behavior Planned Ignoring
4 goals of student misbehavior that should be considered when a team conducts a FBA plan attention seeking, power, revenge and helplessness
Behavioral Theory is generally based on Operant conditioning
Which descriptive approach is here-and-now intervention that attempts to increase conscious awareness of distorted perceptions in the child’s life experiences? Life Space Interview
The teacher confronts the individual by asking “what,” “how,” and “who” questions when using Reality Therapy
Making statements using “shoulds” and “ought are expression of the personality ego state of the Parent
Procedures employed to decrease targeted behaviors include Shaping
In using reinforcers, you move from __________ to _____________. least obtrusive to most obtrusive
The Behaviorist and the Cognitive Behaviorist believe EBD is due to a multitude of complex and relational reasons
Effective Positive Reinforcer effective if it is desired by the student and given immediately after the desired behavior and given only upon the occurrence of the targeted behavior.
Social Skills Training helps students realize that other people have feelings & emotions and shows them how to interact with people in their lives.
students may experience physical symptoms such as headaches, stomachaches and muscle tension with this behavioral category Psychological Behavioral Category
DSM - IV manual that offers definitions & outlines of eligibility for various conditions, requires the person using these guidelines to be a clinical practitioner or a licensed professional
Psychodynamic Model focuses on mental activies & how they relate to emotions, thoughts and behaviors.
Social Discipline Approach (Psychodynamic Model) (Dreikers) schools rely on this as they conduct FBA's. This theory is based on the premis that all behaviors are goal-directed which are attention seeking, power, revenge & helplessness
Person-Centered Approach (Psychodynamic Model) Students learn to solve their own problems, build trust & relationships, use the "I" messages & internalize techniques.
Reality Therapy, also called Choice Therapy Approach (Psychodynamic Model) If needs are not met student feels like a failure which is perpetuated by grades, lectures, memorization (areas where the student is already struggling)
Reality Therapy, also called Choice Therapy Approach (Psychodynamic Model) Interventions in this approach include setting expectations, make a plan, correct inappropriate behviors, confront serious behaviors & enforce reasonable consequences
Punishment procedures employed to decrease targeted behaviors.
Effective Positive Reinforcer effective it is desired by the student & given immediately after the desired behaviorn & given only upon the occurrence of the target behavior.
Social Skills Training helps student realize that other people have feelings and emotions and shows them how to interact with people in their lives.
Students may also experience physical symptoms such as headaches, stomachaches or muscle tension in this Behavior Category Psychological Category of BD/ED
Pycheducational Approach (Pyschodynamic Model) student must move from external locus (teacher) to an internal locus (self-control/self-management)of behaviors.
Pycheducational Approach (Pyschodynamic Model The method of communicaiton & discipline are used by teachers for students with BD/ED
Socialogical Model Students are effected by problems in the home and by parents who demonstrate inappropriate behaviors
Ecological Model A student feels a need to fit in.
Ecological Model Emphasizes the treatment of students and addresses changes in family, school and community
Values-Based/Spiritual Model Schools must be very careful implimenting programs, such as character education, that are connected to values, religion & spiritual ideas.
Assessment purpose is to determine the student's strengths and needs. Most assessments measure both reported functioning and actual functioning.
Reliability, Validity, & Norms important terms in the assessment of a student who may have BD/ED
Informal Assessments monitoring behavior in classroom, observing acquisition of skills & meeting behavioral goals
Formal Assessments Critical for correct ID of a student with BD/ED, variables include physical, medical, adademic, social, & environmental as well as behavioral & emotional factors.
FBA (Functional Behavior Assessment) helpful in creating, revising, or implementing a behavioral intervention.
ITP (Individual Transition Plan) a difficult area for a student with BD/ED is adjusting to life after they leave school.
School-Wide Behavior Support System promote positive behavior for all students
Data Gathering & Procedures should include target behavior recordings, a detailed description of the actions & the actual performance in real life situations
Proactive Stratagies planned interventions, prevent a negative behavior in a classroom before it happens
Stratagies for Classroom Management shaping, contingency contracts, planned ignoring, reinforcements, & overcorrection
Positive Reinforcement increase a desired behavior by giving student something pleasant
Negative Reinforcement increase desired behavior by taking away something unpleasant
Positive Punishment decrease an undesired behavior by giving student something unpleasant
Negative Punishment decrease an undesired behavior by taking something pleasant
Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Provides blueprint for creating flexible goals, methods, materials & assessments that accomadate learner
Created by: cmporter on 2010-04-12



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