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Planning Pathway

AICP Planning Pathway

QuestionAnswer
Founder James Oglethorpe's Savannah, Georgia, is a more complex gridiron with a main axis and interlinking gardens and squares. 1733
Ordinance of _____. Provided for the rectangular land survey of the Old Northwest. The rectangular survey has been called "the largest single act of national planning in our history and ... the most significant in terms of continuing impact on the body po 1785
William Penn's design for Philadelphia is a rectangular grid with a central park and four smaller parks, one in each quadrant. 1682
The first U.S. Census is initiated by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and finished two years later. 1790
Pierre L'Enfant's baroque design for the new nation's capital adds grand radial avenues and ceremonial spaces to a street grid. 1791
The Louisiana Territory, comprising about 800,000 square miles between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains, is purchased from France. The vast acquisition doubles the nation's size and opens it to westward settlement. 1803
In a speech before Congress, Henry Clay proposes a plan (called the American System) to allocate federal funds to promote the development of the national economy by combining tariffs with internal improvements, such as roads, canals and other waterways. 1818
Erie Canal completed. This artificial waterway connected the northeastern states with the newly settled areas of what was then the West, facilitating the economic development of both regions. 1825
The National Road terminates in Vandalia, Illinois. Begun in 1811 in Cumberland, Maryland, it helps open the Ohio Valley to settlers. 1839
First "model tenement" built in Manhattan. 1855
Central Park in New York, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, opens to the public and becomes a model for many other American city parks. 1859
Homestead Act opened the lands of the Public Domain to settlers for a nominal fee and five years residence. 1862
Morrill Act. Congress authorizes land grants from the Public Domain to the states. Proceeds from the sale were to be used to found colleges offering instruction in agriculture, engineering, and other practical arts. 1862
Homestead Act opened the lands of the Public Domain to settlers for a nominal fee and five years residence. 1862
Morrill Act. Congress authorizes land grants from the Public Domain to the states. Proceeds from the sale were to be used to found colleges offering instruction in agriculture, engineering, and other practical arts. 1862
New York Council of Hygiene of the Citizens Association mounts a campaign to raise housing and sanitary standards. 1864
George Perkins Marsh, father of American environmentalism, publishes Man and Nature. This seminal book explores the destructive impact of human action on the natural environment and inspires future conservation movements. 1864
The U.S. purchases Alaska from Russia, adding to the national estate a territory about the size of Texas, Montana, and California combined. 1867
Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux begin the planning of Riverside Illinois, a planned suburban community stressing rural as opposed to urban amenities. 1868
The Union Pacific and the Central Pacific railroads meet at Promontory Point, Utah, on May 10 to complete the first transcontinental railroad. 1869
In his seminal book, Landscape Architecture as Applied to the Wants of the West, H.W.S. Cleveland advocates laying out the streets of towns according to the land's natural contours, rather than by the mechanical replication of the rigid grid. 1873
Alfred T. White, New York philanthropist, completes his "Home Buildings" for poor immigrants. With their fireproof construction, private toilets, and balconies, they are considered the most advanced tenements of their age. White's example inaugurates a mo 1877
Frederick Law Olmsted inaugurates his city-shaping system of Boston urban parks, the "emerald necklace." 1878
John Wesley Powell's Report on the Lands of the Arid Region of the United States is published. Includes a proposed regional plan that would both foster settlement of the arid west and conserve scarce water resources. 1878
Progress and Poverty published. In this influential book Henry George presents an argument for diminishing extremes of national wealth and poverty by means of a single tax (on land) that would capture the "unearned increment" of national development for p 1879
Debut of the "Dumbbell Tenement," so called because of its shape. A form of multifamily housing widely built in New York until the end of the century and notorious for the poor living conditions it imposed on its denizens (lack of light, air, space). 1879
Establishment of U.S. Geological Survey to survey and classify all Public Domain lands. 1879
Building of Pullman, Illinois, model industrial town by George Pullman. 1880-84
The 10-story Home Insurance Building is completed in Chicago. Made possible by the use of a steel frame and the invention of the elevator, it is reputed to be the first skyscraper. 1885
The year conventionally regarded as the beginning of the Art Nouveau period, an international style that flourished until about WWI, and which affected all arts including architecture (curvilinear ornamentation on building facades based on natural forms-l 1890
How the Other Half Lives, by Jacob Riis, is published; a powerful stimulus to housing and neighborhood reform. 1890
General Land Law Revision Act gave President power to create forest preserves by proclamation. 1891
Sierra Club founded to promote the protection and preservation of the natural environment. John Muir, Scottish-American naturalist, and a major figure in the history of American environmentalism, was the leading founder. 1892
World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago commemorating the 400th anniversary of the discovery of the New World. A source of the City Beautiful Movement and of the urban planning profession. 1893
United States v. Gettysburg Electric Railway Co. The first significant legal case concerning historic preservation. The U.S. Supreme Court rules that the acquisition of the national battlefield at Gettysburg served a valid public purpose. 1896
Forest Management Act. Authorized some control by the Secretary of the Interior over the use and occupancy of the forest preserves. 1897
Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform, by Ebenezer Howard, a source of the Garden City Movement. His famous Garden City diagrams appear in the book. Reissued in 1902 as Garden Cities of Tomorrow. 1898
Gifford Pinchot becomes Chief Forester of the United States in the Department of Agriculture. From this position he publicizes the cause of forest conservation. 1898
The McMillan Commission is formed to update and complete L'Enfant's plan for Washington, D.C. Among its accomplishments is a legal 160 foot height limit to preserve the city's skyline. 1901
New York State Tenement House Law. The legislative basis for the revision of city codes that outlawed tenements such as the "Dumbbell Tenement." Lawrence Veiller was the leading reformer. 1901
U.S. Reclamation Act. Created fund from sale of public land in the arid states to supply water there through the construction of water storage and irrigation works. 1902
Letchworth constructed. First English Garden City and a stimulus to New Town movement in America (Greenbelt Towns, Columbia, etc.). 1903
President Theodore Roosevelt appoints a Public Lands Commission to propose rules for orderly land development and management. 1903
Principles of City Land Values, a seminal work by Richard M. Hurd, propounds the primacy of economic factors (accessibility, rent, "highest and best use") as determinants of urban land use and structure. 1903
Antiquities Act of 1906: First law to institute federal protection for preserving archaeological sites. Provided for designation as National Monuments areas already in the public domain that contained "historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structur 1906
Founding of New York Committee on the Congestion of Population. Fostered movement, led by its secretary, Benjamin Marsh, to decentralize New York's dense population. 1907
President Roosevelt establishes an Inland Waterway Commission to encourage multipurpose planning in waterway development: navigation, power, irrigation, flood control, water supply. 1907
White House Conservation Conference. State governors, federal officials, and leading scientists assemble to deliberate about the conservation of natural resources. 1908
Daniel Burnham's Plan of Chicago, sponsored by the Commerical Club of Chicago, is the first metropolitan plan in the United States. (Key figures: Frederick A. Delano, Charles Wacker, Charles Dyer Norton.) 1909
Possibly the first course in city planning in this country is inaugurated in Harvard College's Landscape Architecture Department. Taught by James Sturgis Pray. 1909
The First National Conference on City Planning convenes in Washington, D.C., and brings together the leaders of the housing and city planning movements. 1909
Frederick Winslow Taylor publishes The Principles of Scientific Management, fountainhead of the efficiency movements in this country, including efficiency in city government. 1911
Walter D. Moody's "Wacker's Manual of the Plan of Chicago" is adopted as an eigth-grade textbook on City Planning by the Chicago Board of Education. Possibly the first formal instruction in city planning below the college level. 1912
A chair in Civic Design, first of its kind in the U.S., is created in the University of Illinois's Department of Horticulture for Charles Mulford Robinson, one of the principal promoters of the World's Columbian Exposition. 1913
The Federal Reserve Act creates the Federal Reserve Commission as the nation's decentralized central bank to regulate the national money supply in order to provide for economic stability and growth. 1913
Flavel Shurtleff writes Carrying Out the City Plan, the first major textbook on city planning. 1914
Panama Canal completed and opened to world commerce. 1914
Harland Bartholomew, eventually the country's best known planning consultant, becomes the first full-time employee in Newark, New Jersey, of a city planning commission. 1914
Patrick Geddes, "Father of Regional Planning" and mentor of Lewis Mumford, publishes Cities in Evolution. 1915
The Lake Forest (Illinois) Improvement Trust is established to build Market Square. It is reputed to be the first automobile-centered shopping district in the U.S. 1916
Nelson P. Lewis published Planning of the Modern City. 1916
Nation's first comprehensive zoning resolution adopted by New York City Board of Estimate under the leadership of George McAneny and Edward Bassett, known as the "Father of Zoning." Zoning soon spreads nationwide and influences urban form and design by se 1916
National Park Service established with sole responsibility for conserving and preserving resources of special value. 1916
Durham, California, an experimental cooperative agricultural colony is established under the California State Land Settlement Act of the same year. 1917
Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. becomes first president of newly founded American City Planning Institute, forerunner of American Institute of Planners and American Institute of Certified Planners. 1917
U.S. Housing Corporation and Emergency Fleet Corporation established. Influenced later endeavors in public housing. Operated at major shipping centers to provide housing for World War I workers. 1918
Three early unifunctional regional authorities — the Metropolitan Sewerage Commission, the Metropolitan Water Board and the Metropolitan Park Commission — combined to form the Boston Metropolitan District Commission. 1919
A year conventionally regarded as the beginning of the Art Deco era, the era between the two World Wars that left its mark (streamlining, angles, neon, etc.) on the look of many American cities. Among its iconic structures are New York's Rockefeller Cente 1920
Congress passes the Budget and Accounting Act establishing a Bureau of the Budget (forerunner of the Office of Management and Budget) for the purpose of centralizing and enhancing the efficiency of its financial processes. The same act sets up the General 1921
New Orleans designates the Vieux Carre Commission, the first historic preservation commission in the U.S. 1921
J.C. Nichols Country Club Plaza, a group of leased stores planned as a unit and under single ownership is created in the vicinity of Kansas City, Missouri. 1922
Los Angeles County Regional Planning Commission created. First of its kind in the United States. (Hugh Pomeroy, head of staff.) 1922
Inauguration of Regional Plan of New York under Thomas Adams 1922
Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon. The first decision to hold that a land use restriction constituted a taking. The U.S. Supreme Court (Justice Brandeis dissenting) noted "property may be regulated to a certain extent, [but] if regulation goes too far it wil 1922
Ground broken for construction of Mariemont, Ohio, in suburban Cincinnati. Mary Emery was its founder and benefactor; John Nolen, the planner. Some of its features (short blocks, mixture of rental and owner-occupied housing) foreshadow the contemporary Ne 1923
The Fairway Farms experiment, funded by the Spellman Foundation, begins with the purchase of nine farms in Montana. Its purpose is to demonstrate, with the aid of scientific planning, the viability of the family farm on the high plains. 1924
U.S. Department of Commerce under Secretary Herbert Hoover issues a Standard State Zoning Enabling Act. 1924
Sunnyside Gardens, a planned neighborhood designed by Clarence Stein and Henry Wright, is built by City Housing Corporation under Alexander Bing in Queens, New York. 1924-28
Publication of "Regional Plan" issue of Survey Graphic, influential essays on regional planning by Lewis Mumford and other members of the Regional Planning Association of America (e.g., Catherine Bauer). 1925
Cincinnati, Ohio, becomes first major American city officially to endorse a comprehensive plan. (Alfred Bettman, Ladislas Segoe). 1925
Ernest Burgess's "Concentric Zone" model of urban structure and land use is published. 1925
In April, The American City Planning Institute and The National Conference on City Planning publish Vol. 1, No. 1 of City Planning, ancestor of present-day Journal of the American Planning Association. 1925
Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co . Constitutionality of zoning upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court. (Case argued by Alfred Bettman.) 1926
U.S. Department of Commerce under Secretary Herbert Hoover issues a Standard City Planning Enabling Act. 1928
Benton MacKaye, known as Father of the Appalachian Trail, publishes The New Exploration: A Philosophy of Regional Planning 1928
Robert Murray Haig's monograph "Major Economic Factors in Metropolitan Growth and Arrangement" is published in Volume I of The Regional Survey of New York and Its Environs. Viewed land use as a function of accessibility. 1928
Construction of Radburn, New Jersey, begun. Planned community inspired by Howard's Garden City concept and designed by Stein and Wright. A forerunner of the New Deal's Greenbelt towns. 1928
Architect Robert H. H. Hugman presents a plan to the civic authorities of San Antonio for the redevelopment of the San Antonio River, the seed of the city's famous Paseo del Rio (Riverwalk). 1929
Clarence Perry's monograph on the Neighborhood Unit is published in Volume VII of The Regional Survey of New York and Its Environs. 1929
A Wisconsin law, possibly the first instance of rural zoning, authorizes county boards "to regulate, restrict and determine the areas within which agriculture, forestry and recreation may be conducted." 1929
Stock market crash in October ushers in Great Depression and fosters ideas of public planning on a national scale. 1929
Building the City, the last and summary volume of the multi-volume Regional Plan of New York, is published and gives rise in the pages of The New Republic (June-July 1932) to a famous argument between Thomas Adams and Lewis Mumford regarding the value of 1931
National Land Utilization Conference convened in Chicago. Three hundred agricultural experts deliberate on rural recovery programs and natural resource conservation. 1931
In The Disappearing City, Frank Lloyd Wright elevates America's penchant for urban sprawl into a design principal. He calls it Broadacre City. 1932
Federal Home Loan Bank System established to shore up shaky home financing institutions. 1932
Reconstruction Finance Corporation established at the outset of the Great Depression to revive economic activity by extending financial aid to failing financial, industrial, and agricultural institutions. 1932
Franklin Delano Roosevelt becomes president. The New Deal begins with a spate of counter-depression measures. 1933
Home Owners Loan Corporation established to save homeowners facing loss through foreclosure. 1933
The National Planning Board established in the Interior Department to assist in the preparation of a comprehensive plan for public works under the direction of Frederick Delano, Charles Merriam, Wesley Mitchell. Its last successor agency, the National Res 1933
Civilian Conservation Corps established to provide work for unemployed youth and to conserve nation's natural resources. 1933
Federal Emergency Relief Administration set up under Harry Hopkins to organize relief work in urban and rural areas. 1933
The Tennessee Valley Authority, a public corporation with some of the freedom of a private corporation, is created to provide for the unified and multipurpose rehabilitation and redevelopment of the Tennessee Valley. Senator George Norris of Nebraska fath 1933
The Agricultural Adjustment Act is passed to regulate agricultural trade practices, production, prices, supply areas (and therefore land use) as a recovery measure. 1933
American Society of Planning Officials founded, an organization for planners, planning commissioners and planning-related public officials. 1934
National Housing Act. Established FSLIC for insuring savings deposits and the FHA for insuring individual home mortgages. 1934
Taylor Grazing Act is passed, its purpose to regulate the use of the range in the West for conservation purposes. 1934
"Final Report" by the National Planning Board on its first year of existence. Includes a section entitled "A Plan for Planning" and an account of the "Historical Development of Planning in the United States." The latter views American planning history in 1934
The Securities and Exchange Act establishes the Securities and Exchange Commission and inaugurates some regulatory control over the stock and bond markets to prevent another crash like that of 1929 1934
Resettlement Administration established under Rexford Tugwell, Roosevelt "braintruster," to carry out experiments in land reform and population resettlement. This agency built the three Greenbelt towns (Greenbelt, Maryland; Greendale, Wisconsin; Greenhill 1935
Publication date of Regional Factors in National Planning by the National Resources Committee, a landmark in regional planning literature. 1935
Soil Conservation Act. Congress moves to make prevention of soil erosion a national responsibility. 1935
The Historic Sites, Buildings and Antiquities Act, a predecessor of the National Historic Preservation Act, passed. Requires the Secretary of the Interior to identify, acquire, and restore qualifying historic sites and properties and calls upon federal ag 1935
Social Security Act passed to create a safety net for elderly. Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor and first woman cabinet member, was a principal promoter. 1935
Congress authorizes construction of the Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River in Central Washington State. Finished in 1941, it is the largest concrete structure in the U.S. and the heart of the Columbia Basin Project, a regional plan comparable in its s 1935
Hoover Dam on the Colorado River completed. Creates and sustains population growth and industrial development in Nevada, California, and Arizona. 1936
Our Cities: Their Role in the National Economy. A landmark report by the Urbanism Committee of the National Resources Committee. (Ladislas Segoe headed research staff.) 1937
U.S. Housing Act (Wagner-Steagall). Set the stage for future government aid by appropriating $500 million in loans for low-cost housing. Tied slum clearance to public housing. 1937
Farm Security Administration established, successor to the Resettlement Administration and administrator of many programs to aid the rural poor. Landmark Laws 1937
The American Institute of Planners, the planning field's professional organization, states as its purpose: "... the planning of the unified developoment of urban communities and their environs, and of states, regions and the nation, as expressed through d 1938
Homer Hoyt's influential "sector theory" of urban growth appears in his monograph, The Structure and Growth of Residential Neighborhoods in American Cities. 1939
Local Planning Administration, by Ladislas Segoe, first of "Green Book" series, appears. 1941
Robert Walker's Planning Function in Urban Government advocates making the planning staff an arm of the city government rather than of a citizens planning board or commission. 1941
Bretton Woods (New Hampshire) Agreement. The U.S. and allies meet to establish the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank). 1944
Serviceman's Readjustment Act ("G.I. Bill"). Guaranteed loans for homes to veterans under favorable terms, thereby accelerating the growth of suburbs. 1944
Housing and Home Financing Agency (predecessor of HUD) created to coordinate federal government's various housing programs. 1947
Construction of Park Forest, Illinois, and Levittown, New York, begun. 1947
Secretary George C. Marshall uses his Harvard College commencement address to propose the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of postwar Europe. 1947
Land Use in Central Boston, a classic treatise by Walter Firey, challenges the claim of the regnant economic "highest and best use" doctrine to be a sufficient explanation of the arrangement of urban land uses. 1947
Communitas, a classic text by Paul and Percival Goodman, explores three community paradigms and their possible expressions in phyical-spatial forms. 1947
Housing Act (Wagner-Ellender-Taft Bill). First U.S. comprehensive housing legislation. Aimed to construct about 800,000 units. Inaugurated urban redevelopment program. 1949
The National Trust for Historic Preservation is created and chartered by Congress 1949
Pittsburgh is the first major American city to demolish and reshape a large part of its downtown. The finished project, comprising parks, office buildings, and a sports arena, is called The Golden Triangle. 1950
In Berman v. Parker, U.S. Supreme Court upholds right of Washington, D.C. Redevelopment Land Agency to condemn properties that are unsightly, though non-deteriorated, if required to achieve objectives of duly established area redevelopment plan. 1954
In Brown v. Board of Education (Topeka, Kansas), Supreme Court upholds school integration. 1954
Housing Act of 1954. Stressed slum prevention and urban renewal rather than slum clearance and urban redevelopment as in the 1949 act. Also stimulated general planning for cities under 25,000 population by providing funds under Section 701 of the act. "70 1954
The Council of Government movement (COGS) begins in the Detroit area with the formation of a Supervisors' Inter-County Committee composed of the representatives of each county in southeastern Michigan for the purpose of confronting areawide problems. It s 1954
Urban Traffic: A Function of Land Use, by Robert B. Mitchell and Chester Rapkin is published, a groundbreaking inquiry into the forces that account for the land use structure of the modern metropolitan region. 1954
The Air Pollution Control Act issues a national wakeup call on the dangers of air pollution and grants $5 million annually for five years of research on the problem. Later congressional acts (1963, 1970, and 1990) will be concerned with types of pollution 1955
Southdale Center Mall, the first fully covered shopping center with climate control, is built in Edina, Minnesota by Victor Gruen. 1956
Convened by Jose Luis Sert, some of America's foremost architects, city planners, social scientists, and public intellectuals gather at a conference at Harvard's Graduate School of Design to define urban design. 1956
Congress passes multibillion dollar Federal Aid Highway Act to create interstate highway system linking all state capitals and most cities of 50,000 population or more. 1956
Standard Industrial Classification, encompassing both manufacturing and non-manufacturing industries, is published by the Bureau of the Budget. 1957
F. Stuart Chapin, Jr. publishes Urban Land Use Planning, the first textbook on the subject. 1957
Education for Planning. A seminal, book-length inquiry by Harvey S. Perloff into the "appropriate intellectual, practical and 'philosophical' basis for the education of city and regional planners ..." 1957
The Seagram Building by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is erected on New York's Park Avenue. Considered a masterpiece of the international "glass box" style, it is widely imitated and influences the appearance of many American cities. 1958
Construction of the nation's first outdoor pedestrian mall begins in Kalamazoo, Michigan. 1959
"A Multiple Land Use Classification System" by Albert Guttenberg in the Journal of the American Institute of Planners expands the land use concept by defining and classifying it multi-dimensionally. 1959
Congress establishes the Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations (ACIR), with members from various branches of government. Serves primarily as a research agency and think tank in area of intergovernmental relations. 1959
The American Collegiate Schools of Planning (ASCP) is born when a few department heads of planning schools get together at the annual ASIP conference to confer on common problems and interests regarding the eductation of planners. 1959
The St. Lawrence Seaway is completed. This joint U.S.-Canada project created, in effect, a fourth North American seacoast, opening the American heartland to sea-going vessels. 1959
The Philadelphia Comprehensive Plan is published. It proposes a hierarchy of roads, centers, and other community facilities ascending from the neighborhood to the metropolitan level. 1960
Image of the City by Kevin Lynch defines basic elements of city's "imageability" (paths, edges, nodes, etc.). The book represents a new and growing emphasis by the design professions on the way city dwellers perceive and use their urban environment. 1960
The Nation's Capital: A Plan for the Year 2000 is published. The metropolitan form it proposes is sectoral and directional: alternate corridors of growth and conservation. 1961
In The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jane Jacobs critiques Ebenezer Howard's Garden City concept and the modernist Radiant City ("towers-in-a-park) idea of Le Corbusier. She takes them to task for confusing urban design with suburban design. 1961
Richard Hedman and Fred Bair publish And On the Eighth Day, a hilarious book of cartoons poking fun at the planning profession by two of our own. 1961
Hawaii becomes first state to institute statewide zoning. 1961
A Delaware River Basin Commission representing the states of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania is created to foster joint management of the river's water resources. 1961
The urban growth simulation model emerges in the Penn-Jersey Transportation Study. 1962
"A Choice Theory of Planning," seminal article in AIP Journal by Paul Davidoff and Thomas Reiner, lays basis for advocacy planning concept. 1962
Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring is published and wakes the nation to the deleterious effects of pesticides on animal, plant and human life. 1962
The Fairfax County Board of Supervisors establishes Virginia's first residential planned community zone, clearing the way for the creation of Reston, a full-scale, self-contained New Town 18 miles from Washington, D.C. 1962
The City in History by Lewis Mumford, social critic and professional planner, wins the National Book Award. 1962
Columbia, Maryland, a new town situated about halfway between Washington and Baltimore, featuring some class integration and the neighborhood principle. 1963
In an influential article in the Journal of the American Institute of Planners, "Comprehensive Planning and Social Responsibility," Melvin Webber calls for the profession to widen its scope beyond the traditional base in land-use planning, embrace more di 1963
T.J. Kent publishes The Urban General Plan. 1964
Civil Rights Act outlaws discrimination based on race, creed, and national origin in places of public accommodation. 1964
The Federal Bulldozer by Martin Anderson indicts then-current urban renewal program as counterproductive to its professed aims of increased low- and middle-income housing supply. With Herbert Gans's The Urban Villagers (1962), a study of the consequences 1964
President Lyndon Johnson signs into law a Wilderness Act establishing a National Wilderness Preservation System "to be composed of federally owned areas designated by Congress as 'wilderness areas.'" Their pristine character is to be maintained by prohibi 1964
In a commencement speech at the University of Michigan, President Lyndon Johnson declares war on poverty and urges congressional authorization of many remedial programs, plus the establishment of a cabinet-level Department of Housing and Community Develop 1964
A Model of Metropolis by Ira Lowry, one of the earliest and the most influential of urban development models, is published by Rand Corporation. 1964
A White House Conference on Natural Beauty in America is convened on May 24 and 25, owing much to the interest and advocacy of the First Lady, Lady Bird Johnson. 1965
Housing and urban policy achieve cabinet status when the Housing and Home Finance Agency is succeeded by the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Robert Weaver becomes HUD's first Secretary and nation's first African-American cabinet member. 1965
Congress passes the Water Resources Management Act authorizing Federal-Multistate river basin commissions. 1965
The Public Work and Economic Development Act passes Congress. This act establishes the Economic Development Administration to extend coordinated, multifaceted aid to lagging regions and foster their redevelopment 1965
The Appalachian Regional Planning Act establishes a region comprising all of West Virginia and parts of 12 other states, plus a planning commission with the power to frame plans and allocate resources. 1965
John Reps publishes The Making of Urban America, the first comprehensive history of American urban planning beginning with colonial times. 1965
The Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act launched the "model cities" program, an interdisciplinary attack on urban blight and poverty. A centerpiece of President Lyndon Johnson's "Great Society" program. 1966
With Heritage So Rich, a seminal historic preservation book, is published 1966
National Historic Preservation Act passed. Establishes the National Register of Historic Places and provides, through its Section 106, for the protection of preservation-worthy sites and properties threatened by federal activities. This act also creates t 1966
Section 4(f) of the Department of Transportation Act provides protection to parkland, wildlife refuges, and other preservation-worthy resources in building national roads. Unlike parkland and wildlife refuges, however, privately owned historic sites as we 1966
In Design of Cities, Edmund Bacon explains his philosophy of design, derived in part from his study of great urban design achievements of the past, and shows how it applies to the revived design of mid-twentieth century Central City Philadelphia. 1967
The planning profession reaches its 50th anniversary with a celebratory conference in Washington, D.C. Many of the earliest practitioners and founders of the profession attend together with eminent leaders of other professions. 1967
The "(Louis B.) Wetmore Amendment" drops the final phrase in the 1938 AIP declaration of purpose which tied it to the comprehensive arrangement and regulation of land use. The effect is to broaden the scope and membership of the profession by including "s 1967
To implement Intergovernmental Relations Act of 1968 the Office of Management and Budget issues Circular A-95 requiring state and substate regional clearinghouses to review and comment on federally assisted projects to facilitate coordination among the th 1968
Ian McHarg publishes Design with Nature, tying planning to the natural environment. 1969
National Environmental Policy Act requires an "environmental impact statement" for every federal or federally aided state or local major action that might significantly harm the environment. 1969
Mel Scott publishes American City Planning Since 1890. Reissued in 1995 by the American Planning Association 1969
Apollo 11 lands on the moon on July 20. 1969
Arcosanti, an experiment in designing a whole, humane, and ecologically sound city in the form of a single structure, is begun by Italian architect Paolo Soleri, in the Arizona desert 70 miles north of metropolitan Phoenix. 1970
The Uses of Disorder by historian and social critic Richard Sennett advocates the lifting of all current codes, statutes, ordinances, and other legal constraints as a means of arriving at a more just and viable municipal physical and social urban form. 1970
First "Earth Day," January 1. 1970
Federal Environment Protection Agency established to administer main provisions of the Clean Air Act (1970). 1970
The Miami Valley (Ohio) Regional Planning Commission Housing Plan is adopted, the first such plan in the nation to allocate low- and moderate-income housing on a "fair share" basis. 1970
Learning from Las Vegas, the product of a study by Robert Venturi, Denise Scott-Brown, and Steven Izenour, finds aesthetic order and value in America's commercial strips. 1971
AIP adopts a Code of Ethics for professional planners. 1971
The Coastal Zone Management Act creates a voluntary National Coastal Management Program in which participating states undertake to develop coastal management programs meeting minimal federal standards. 1972
The Clean Water Act is passed to keep pollutants from point sources out of navigable waters. 1972
General revenue sharing inaugurated under the U.S. State and Local Fiscal Assistance Act 1972
In Golden v. Planning Board of Ramapo, New York high court allows the use of performance criteria as a means of slowing community growth. 1972
Demolition of St. Louis's notorious Pruitt-Igoe Project symbolizes a nationwide move away from massive, isolating, high-rise structures to a more humane form of public housing architecture: low-rise, less isolated, dispersed. 1972
The Earth Resources Technology Satellite ("Landsat") is launched the first of several satellites for acquiring high resolution images of the earth's surface, and a major advance in the efforts to identify, evaluate, develop, and conserve the planet's natu 1972
Endangered Species Act. Authorized Federal assistance to state and local jurisdictions to establish conservation programs for endangers plant and animal species. 1973
The Housing and Community Development Act reshapes housing policy by replacing the customary categorical grant with the block grant as the principal form of federal aid for local community development, and by creating a rental assistance program for low- 1974
Cleveland Policy Plan Report shifts emphasis from traditional land-use planning to advocacy planning. 1975
Faneuil Hall in Boston, an early festival marketplace on the site of the old Quincy Market stimulates like projects in many of the nations obsolete central business districts. 1976
Water Tower Place opens on Michigan Avenue in Chicago. It is the nation's first vertical mall. 1976
Historic Preservation Fund established. 1976
Postmodernism is widely popularized by the publication of Charles Jencks's book The Language of Postmodern Architecture. 1977
First exam for AIP membership conducted. 1977
Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York, 438 U.S. 104 (1978): U.S. Supreme Court upholds New York City's Landmark Preservation Law as applied to Grand Central Terminal. In this landmark decision, the Court found that barring some development o 1978
American Institute of Planners (AIP) and American Society of Planning Officials (ASPO) merge to become American Planning Association (APA). 1978
The Urban Park and Recreation Recovery Act is passed by Congress, authorizing $725 million for matching grants to rehabilitate parks and other recreational facilities in impoverished local communities. 1978
The Urban Park and Recreation Recovery Act is passed by Congress, authorizing $725 million for matching grants to rehabilitate parks and other recreational facilities in impoverished local communities. 1979
"Reagan Revolution" begins. Planning profession challenged to adapt to a new (counter-New Deal) policy environment: reduced federal domestic spending, privatization, deregulation, etc. Phase-out of some earlier aids to planning (e.g., sewer grants) and pl 1980
Superfund Bill passed by Congress (Comprehensive Response, Compensation and Liability Act). Creates liability for persons discharging hazardous waste into the environment. Taxes polluting industries to establish a trust fund for the cleanup of polluted si 1980
The Associated Collegiate Schools of Planning (ACSP) is established to represent the academic branch of the planning profession. 1980
ACSP issues Volume 1, Number 1 of The Journal of Education and Planning Research. 1981
The Portland (Oregon) Public Services Building (Michael Graves) is completed. It is considered by some to be the first postmodern building. Postmodernism is defined, among other characteristics, by its difference from modernism: it is eclectic rather than 1981
In a case focusing on Mt. Laurel, New Jersey, the New Jersey Supreme Court rules that all 567 municipalities in the state must build their "fair share" of affordable housing. A precedent-setting blow against racial segregation. 1983
Construction begins on Seaside, Florida, one of the earliest examples of the New Urbanism. (Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk). Unlike most earlier planned communities, the New Urbanism emphasizes urban features — compactness, walkability, mixed us 1984
The First National Conference on American Planning History is convened in Columbus, Ohio and leads to the founding of the Society 0f American City and Regional Planning History (SACRPH) the following year. 1986
In First English Evangelical Lutheran Church v. County of Los Angeles, U.S. Supreme Court finds that even a temporary taking requires compensation. In Nollan v. California Coastal Commission, it finds that land-use restrictions, to be valid, must be tied 1987
The Planning Accreditation Board (PAB) is recognized by the Washington-based Council on Post Secondary Education to be the sole accrediting agency in the field of professional planning education. 1989
Passage of Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) includes provisions for a National Scenic Byways Program and for transportation enhancements, each of which includes a historic preservation component. 1991
In Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council, the U.S. Supreme Court limits local and state governments' ability to restrict private property without compensation. 1992
Enterprise Zone/Empowerment Community (EZ/EC) proposal signed into law. Aims tax incentives, wage tax credits, special deductions, and low-interest financing to a limited number of impoverished urban and rural communities to jumpstart their economic and s 1993
In Dolan v. City of Tigard, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that a jurisdiction must show that there is a "rough proportionality" between the adverse impacts of a proposed development and the exactions it wishes to impose on the developer. 1994
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) among U.S., Canada and Mexico begins on January 1, its purpose to foster trade and investment among the three nations by removing or lowering non-tariff as well as tariff barriers. 1994
American Institute of Certified Planners inaugurates a College of Fellows to recognize distinguished individual contributions by longer term AICP members. 1999
President Clinton Creates eight new national monuments in five western states: Canyons of the Ancients (Colorado); Cascade-Siskiyou (Oregon); Hanford Reach (Washington); Ironwood Forest, Grand Canyon-Parashant, Agua Fria (Arizona); Grand Sequoia, Californ 2000
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