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Social Work Licensure

Ableism A pervasive system of discrimination and exclusion that oppresses people who have mental, emotional, and physical disabilities on the individual, institutional, and societal/cultural levels.
Academic Supervision focuses on the development of skills directed toward professional practice, or practice skill development.
Accommodation In developmental and Piagetian theory, a person's growing ability to modify current thought structure to deal with new or newly perceived features of the environment.
Acculturation A form of assimilation wherein an ethnic group or individual takes on the cultural ways of another group, usually that of mainstream culture, and often does so at the expense of traditional cultural ways.
Actual Power The worker's resources for changing conditions inside and outside the group.
Adlerian Theory Man has an inherent drive for power and strives from feeling inferior toward superiority. Ind. does this thru one's lifestyle. Ppl achieve goals by developing social interests, and healthy ppl learn to place the good of society over personal gain.
Advocacy involves assisting, defending, supporting, or suggesting a set of strategic actions to deal with unmet needs, social problems, or social injustice with the hopes of acquiring and enjoying social justice.
Phases of Treatment- Aftercare the assessment of the overall treatment experience along with a case management plan for the acquisition of services required to assist in the continued delivery of needed services.
Agent Group people with greater access to power and privilege based on membership
Communication Styles- Aggressive behavior that expresses personal rights, wants, and feelings while infringing on the rights of others
Alcoholism the physical or psychological dependence on alcohol use, leading to social, mental, financial, interpersonal, and physical impairment
Ally A member of the agent group who rejects the dominant ideology and takes action against oppression out of a belief that eliminating oppression will benefit both agents and targets
Altruism unselfish regard for the well-being of others, accompanied by motivation to give money, goods, services, or companionship
Alzheimer's Disease mental disorder occurring most often in older ppl. Characterized by confusion, forgetfulness, mood swings, disorientation, and dementia. Thought to be the result of diffuse brain atrophy in frontal lobes. Cause is unknown
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 defines disability, enforced by the Justice department. Prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in employment, public transportation, state and local government services, public accommodations, and telecommunications.
Androgyny a sexual orientation in which mannerisms and behaviors that are usually considered either male or female are both incorporated into one's behavioral repertoire
Anti-semitism systematic discrimination against, denigration,or oppression of Jews, Judaism, and the cultural, intellectual, and religious heritage of the Jewish people
Communication Styles- Assertive behavior that enables a person to act in her own best interests, to stand up for herself without undue anxiety, to express wants and feelings directly with reasonable comfort, and to express personal rights without denying the rights of others
Assessment the investigation and determination of variables affecting an identified problem or issue as viewed from micro, mezzo, and macro perspectives
Assessment As a process, it involves gathering, organizing and making judgments about information. As a product, it is a verbal or written statement of the functioning of the group and its members, which is useful in the development of intervention plans
Assessment of Group Function The group leader will look at issues such as group cohesion, the clarity of group goals, communication structure, participation, problem solving, individual attraction, and conflict resolution.
Assimilation a process whereby a previously distinct ethnic group merges socially into another group, usually dominant or mainstream society.
The Attachment Model attachment and loss are typical of human and subhuman species
Attending Skills Listen carefully, good eye contact, use open-ended questions, use silence as necessary, take notes you are unlikely to remember
Attributed Power Comes from the perception among group members or others outside the group of the worker's ability to lead.
Attribution Theory concerned with the ways in which people explain the behavior of others or themselves with something else. Explores how individuals attribute causes to events and how this cognitive perception affects their usefulness in an organization
Styles of Leadership- Authoritarian leader sets goals, develops plans, dictates activities, all independent of member input
Barriers to the Development of Identity According to Erikson: prejudice, discrimination, lack of economic opportunity
Bartering trade in which goods or services are directly exchanged for other goods/services. In NASW code, bartering should only be done under select few circumstances, especially and only if it is not harmful to the client
Basic Factors Influencing Human Socialization family, religion, community, education, government, self
Battered Child Syndrome medical term: disease in which children are physically abused
Phases of Group Development- Beginning Stage Planning, organizing, convening, emergence of group feelings, rapport building, getting used to surroundings, resistance, members' guard up, encourage discussion and resolution of conflict, members begin to explore and test roles
Interview Process- Beginnings Feelings of respect, warmth and understanding. Client feels accepted and knows that his confidentiality will be respected and his individuality will be acknowledged. Respect for the client's self-determination is communicated. The interviewer is genuine.
Behavior Modification Method of assessing and altering behavior based on the methods of applied behavior analysis, the principles of operant conditioning, and social learning theory
Behavioral Family Therapy helps families achieve specific goals. The social worker helps the client/family members define their problems clearly in terms of overt behaviors and develop problem-solving behaviors to which all agree
Behavioral Norms how to act appropriately
Behavioral Rehearsal technique used by social workers in which the professional suggests or demonstrates desired behavior to a client and then encourages the client, through description, role playing, and other demonstrations, to behave similarly
Berg Pioneered family preservation services
Biopsychosocial Assessment includes the social worker's judgment as to the problem to be solved, derived from psychological tests and legal info, brief descriptions of the problem configuration, a description of existing resources, the prognosis, and the plan to resolve the problem
Blended Families one or both spouses have biologically parented one or more children with someone else prior to the current marriage
Board of Directors a group of ppl whose purpose is to govern an org., including governing boards, or board of trustees, who are legally and financially responsible for the conduct of an org., and advisory boards, who provide counsel and guidance to the management of an org.
Boundaries regions separating two psychological or social systems. Central concept in family systems theory. Rules that determine how the family members are expected to relate to one another and to nonfamily members
Brokering the linking of client systems to needed resources, assuming that needs can be met through existing services and resources
Cabinets a group designed to provide advice and expertise about policy issues to chief executive officers or other high-level administrators
Candor the quality of being honest and straight-forward in attitude and speech
Case Advocacy advocating on behalf of a single case
Case Management method of providing services whereby a professional social worker assesses the needs of the client and the client's family, when appropriate, and arranges, coordinates, monitors, evaluates and advocates for a pkg of multiple services to meet client needs
Case Management Functions Staying in touch with the comprehensive needs of the client, linking the client to the needed services, and monitoring the services offered to make sure that they work well for the client
Roles in Micro Practice- Case Manager coordinates services
Cause/Class Advocacy advocating on behalf of an issue of overriding importance to a group of clients
Characteristics of ADD/HD persistent pattern of inattention, excessive physical movement, and impulsivity that appear in at least two settings, including home, school, work, or social contexts
Child Abuse and Neglect the physical or mental injury, sexual abuse or exploitation, neglect, or maltreatment of a child by an individual responsible for that child
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder develop. disorder characterized by a reg. in development after more than 2 yrs of normal development. Between ages 2 & 10, the child loses previously acq. comm. skills, social relationships, & adaptive behavior & exhibits behavior observed as autistic
Child Sexual Abuse non-consensual sexual behaviors involving children and includes sexual acts accomplished by force, acts committed by an adult or a significantly older child or adolescent with a child
Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) major national voluntary association for promoting the interests of children. A federation of accredited child welfare agencies that provides standard setting, accreditation, technical leadership to local governments, and advocacy for children
Roles- Clarifying or Elaborating Interpreting or reflecting ideas and suggestions; clearing up confusion; indicating alternatives and issues before the group; giving examples
Classism the institutional, cultural, and individual set of practices and beliefs that assign differential value to people according to their socioeconomic class
Client-Centered Therapy form of psychotherapy, orig, by Carl Rogers. Clients are inherently motivated to develop and maximize their capacities and can resolve their own problems provided that the therapist establishes a warm atmosphere
Client Record purpose is to document client progress based on services provided. For the collection of all relevant information regarding the client's history and clinical needs
Client Resilience the capacity to bounce back in the face of adversity and to go on to live functional lives with a sense of well-being
Closed Groups all members usually end at the same time
Coalitions a group of organizations, social action groups, or individuals, also known as alliances, that come together to exert influence by sharing resources and expertise, and agree to pursue common goals not achievable individually
Brief Therapy with Individuals- Cognitive-Behavioral focus on present; goal oriented; emphasis on what is wrong; replace unwanted cognitions or behaviors
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy approach to tx using select concepts from behaviorism, soc. learning theory, action therapy, functional school in SW, task-centered tx therapies based on cognitive models. Tend to be short-term, focused on present, & fairly limited & specified in goals
Cognitive Theory how individuals perceive, remember, think, and make use of language. How people organize information and make long-range plans, regulating their behavior
Power-bases- Coercive results from failure to comply
Coevolution the idea that a social system not only adapts to an environment, but in turn has a direct influence on the environment through feedback cycles
Committees a group of ppl who are appointed or elected to the group to accomplish a task that is delegated to the committee from a higher authority such as organizational bylaws or an agency executive, and may be temporary or a more permanent part of an organization
Communication the process by which people convey meanings to each other by using symbols
Community basic and mutual dependence among people. A combination of social units and systems that perform the major social functions important to the locality
Community Theory two primary components- the nature of communities and social work practice within communities
Defense Mechanisms- Compensation generally involves an effort to make up for imaginary or real behaviors that are considered undesirable
Values in the NASW Code of Ethics- Competence having the necessary skills and abilities to perform work with clients effectively
Composition of the Group selection & modif. of the mmbrshp in the grp. Mmbrs' attributes are imp. to consider such as race & gender, as well as the inds. ability to perform common ground that all mmbrs share so they feel comfortable in sharing & are intersted in wrkng together
Roles- Compromising when one's own idea or status is involved in conflict, offering to compromise one's own position; admitting error, disciplining self to maintain group cohesion
Avenues of Communication- Condemnation involves regular patterns of family members severely criticizing, blaming, negatively judging, or nagging other family members
Conduct Disorder a repetitive & persistent pattern of behavior in which the rights of others are violated as are age-appropriate norms and social roles. Three severity categories: mild, moderate, severe
Principles of Social Work Ethics- Confidentiality The social worker may not disclose information about a client (in most situations) without the client's permission
Stages of Group Development- Conforming characterized by a greater degree of uncertainty within the interpersonal realm than within the task realm, as the group already harbors expectations about the level of task competence of the new member
Power Bases- Connection leader perceived as having resources useful to members: "networking"
Avenues of Communication- Consensus the extent to which the receiver accurately hears and understands the sender
Roles- Consensus Testing sending up trial balloons to see if the group is nearing a conclusion; checking with the group to see how much agreement has been reached
Conservation in cognitive theory, the ability to remember or retain relevant info & also to ignore irrelevant cues. Ex: children start to understand that water doesn't change when it is poured into pitchers of different shapes
Continuous Reinforcement in behavior modification, a schedule of reinforcement in which a target behavior is reinforced each time it occurs (compared with less-frequent intermittent reinforcement)
Contracting contracts are mutual agreements that specify expectations, obligations, and duties
Defense Mechanisms- Conversion this involves the transfer of anxiety or emotional conflict to overt physical manifestations or symptoms such as pain, loss of feeling, or paralysis
Roles- Counselor provides guidance toward change
Countertransference set of conscious or unconscious emotional reactions to a client experienced by the social worker or other professional
Crisis Intervention a brief and time-limited therapeutic intervention where a social worker or other mental health professionals help a client system in crisis recognize the participating problem and identify potential coping methods
Criteria for Inclusion in the Family Preservation Program child is at risk of out-of-home placement, family agrees to services, less obtrusive community resource is unavailable or not effective, child's safety will not be compromised by remaining in the home during service provision
Cultural Classism the way in which classism is manifest through our cultural norms and practices
Cultural Competence the ability to perceive others through their own cultural lens, knowledge of specific beliefs in the client's community, personal comfort with differences
Cycle of Socialization we are born w/out prej., we were born into a family who taught us oppress. system, oppression is reinforced thru our interactions, our reaction results in unapp. action, you do nothing- the cycle repeats, you take action for change so cycle doesn't repeat
Data Points in statistics, a single typed measurement
Day Treatment Programs non-profit or for-profit agencies' programs used to treat mental illness and substance abuse. The patient continues to reside at home, but commutes to a treatment center up to 7 days a week
Decenter getting clients to focus their attention on aspects of their situation other than the one of most immediate concern
Decision Tree decision support tool that uses a tree-like graph or model of decisions and their possible consequences
Defense Mechanisms mental processes that protect the personality from anxiety, guilt feelings, or unacceptable thoughts. The ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
Stages of Group Development- Deforming TUCKMASN...also known as "adjourning". Completion and disengagement, both from the tasks and the group members. Some authors describe stage 5 as "deforming and mourning", recognizing the sense of loss felt by group members
Deindividuation the loss of self-awareness and of individual accountability in a group
Deinstitutionalization the process of releasing patients, inmates, or ppl who are dependent for their physical care from residential care facilities, presumably with the understanding that they no longer need such care or can receive it through community based services
Delegate Councils a grp composed for the purposes of facilitating inter-agency communication and cooperation, studying community-wide social issues or social problems, engaging in collective social action, and governing large org. whose mmbrs are appointed or elected
Styles of Leadership- Democratic seeks involvement of all members when seeking decisions
Demographic Research used for the collection of data to describe a group, setting, organization, intervention, or environment. Ex: gender, religion, social class, education, employment, age, residence
Defense Mechanisms- Denial insisting to oneself that nothing is wrong
Dependency Ratio the number of workers required to pay into the social security system to support one retired worker living on social security
Depressants/Sedatives/Hypnotics barbituates: decreased heart rates and blood pressure, sedation, euphoria, decreased mental acuity & slowed speech. Methaqualone: increased motor activity, dry mouth, euphoria, increased self confidence
Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs) federally mandated prospective payment mechanism designed to control the costs of medical & hospital care for Medicare recipients
Phases of Treatment- Diagnostic includes integration of assessment information and selection of a diagnosis from the DSM-IV. The diagnosis plays a major role in the creation of the treatment plan.
Differentiation 5n family systems theories, the ability of family members to distinguish or separate their identities, thoughts, and emotions from those of other family members
Values in the NASW Code of Ethics- Dignity and Worth holding people in high esteem and appreciating individual value
Disabilities (definition) limitations in functional performance stemming from impairments. Permanent physical or mental impairment or chronic health or mental health conditions
Disability Insurance ppl who have contributed to social security for the req. # of quarters are eligible for support under this program before they are eligible for social security if their impairment prevents work.
Defense Mechanisms- Displacement taking out our frustrations, feelings, and impulses on people or objects that are less threatening
Distress a painful symptom
Drug Abuse the inappropriate use of a substance in a manner destructive to one's emotional, physical, social and cognitive abilities
D.S.M. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
DSM's definition of mental disorder clinically sig. behavior or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated w/ present distress or disability or w/ a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom
DSM-IV a comprehensive categorization document developed by psychiatry for the purpose of delineating major mental health disorders
The Dual Perspective all people adapt to and interact with two environments: nurturing and sustaining
Dual Relationships where a social worker engages in more than one relationship with a client, becoming social worker and friend, employer, teacher, business associate or sex partner
Due Process of Law adherence to all the rules, procedures, protections, & opportunities legally available when a person accused of a crime is brought to trial & risks possible deprivation of life, liberty, or property
Levinson- Early Adulthood ind. moves out of adolescence, becomes psychologically independent of parents, life aspirations take form, furthering career, autonomy
Ecological Perspective emphasizes understanding people and their environment and the nature of their transactions
Ecological Theory looks at the understanding of individuals and their environment and the interaction of the two. Adaptation, transactions, mutuality, goodness of fit between people and their environment
Ecomap a pictorial representation of a family's connections to persons and/or systems in their environment. Strength/Impact/Quality
Ecosystems Perspective as a meta-theory, attempts to depict phenomena in their connectedness and complexity. This perspective permits multiple practice theories, approaches, and practitioner roles
Educational Groups group whose major purpose is to help members learn new information and skills and can be used in a variety of settings, including treatment agencies, schools, nursing homes, correctional institutions, and hospitals
The Education of the Handicapped Act of 1975 requires the education of children with disabilities (secondary and elementary) as well as adults with disabilities in the least restrictive environment
Education of the Handicapped Amendments of 1990 the addition of social work services to the definition of related services and to the definition of early intervention services. Also established an ombudsperson program
Roles- Educator provides group participants with new information, structures the presentation of that information, and uses modeling to help members learn new skills
Ego In Freudian theory, the mediating executive of personality
Ego Psychology psychosocially oriented concepts that build on Freudian theory but emphasize the individuals adult development and ability to solve problems and deal with realities
Elitism power and influence are highly centralized in communities
Empathic Theory encourages the implementation of interventions and skills which assist in the creation of a positive working professional relationship between the SW and the client. Positive regard for the client, non-judgmental statements, non-possessive warmth
Empathy positive regard, non-judgmental attitude, and non-possessive warmth
Services for the Disables- Employment Services job counseling, retraining, special assistive devices, and supported employment
Empowerment goal is to increase the increase the individual's skill, thus improving his or her means of obtaining social justice by addressing just distribution of resources
Substance Abuse- Enabler a significant other who, because of his or her needs, encourages, promotes, or supports the continued consumption of alcohol/drug
Social Work Roles- Enabler responsible to help the client become capable of coping w/ situational stress.
Skills used in the SW Role of Enabler conveying hope, reducing resistance, recognizing & managing feelings, identifying & supporting personal strengths & social assets, breaking down problems into parts to be solved more readily, & maintaining a focus on goals & the means of achieving them
Encoding basic perceptual process of interpreting incoming stimuli. It is a complex, multi-stage process of converting relatively objective sensory input (light, sound) into subjectively meaningful experiences
Encounter Groups intense, short-term group therapy designed to promote the personal growth of the participants. The emphasis is not on correcting disorders, but rather on increasing the emotional and sensory aspects of being and on increasing open comm. and self-awareness
Roles- Encouraging being friendly, warm, and responsive to others; accepting others and their contributions; regarding others by giving them an opportunity or recognition
Phases of Group Treatment- Ending Stages completion of goal or task efforts; evaluation of efforts
Interview Process- Endings responsibility of the interviewer for time keeping; breaking eye contact, standing up, comments of a social nature
G.I.M.- Engagement the initial period where you as practitioner orient yourself to the problem at hand and begin to establish communication and a relationship with others also addressing the problem
Enmeshed Family (structural family therapy) An unhealthy family relationship pattern in which the role boundaries between various family members are so vague or diffuse that there is little opportunity for independent functioning
Groups- Environmental Interventions seek to change or modify the psychosocial and physical space in which members function
Epistemic Privilege members of an oppressed group have a more immediate, subtle, and critical knowledge of their oppression than do members of the dominant culture
Erik Erikson Psychosocial model of development: eight stages of development, identity crisis
Ethical Dilemmas perplexing situations that require a choice from among alternative actions. They concern social workers' obligations to protect the rights and welfare of clients
Ethnocentrism how we tend to look at our own group or national identity as being central to belonging
Ethnorelativism cultures can only be understood relative to one another
Groups- Evaluation the process of obtaining information about the effects of a single intervention or the effect of the total group experience
Examples of Group Purpose Rehabilitation, correction, socialization, prevention, social action, problem solving, developing social values
Experimental Design prob. the strongest design w/ respect to internal validity if implemented well. If X then Y, If not X the not Y. When you want to determine whether some program or treatment causes some outcome to occur. Treatment and control group
Power Bases- Expert belief by members that leader knows something of value to members
Roles- Expressing Group Feelings sensing feelings, mood, relationships within the group; sharing own feelings
Face Sheet a page of information, usually placed at the front of a client's file or in the beginning of a record that provides basic identifying information about the client
Fading gradually withdrawing prompts and reinforcements that induced behavior in the first place in an intervention
Family Life Cycle Model stage 1: single young adult leaves home. 2:new couple joins their families through marriage or living together. 3:families with young children. 4: families with adolescents. 5: launching children and moving on 6: families in later life
Family Preservation Services intensive services generally delivered in the client's home over a brief, time-limited period. Also referred to as family-based services, home-based services, or in-home treatment
Family Systems Theory reciprocal relationships and mutual influences between individuals and the whole
Family Therapy focuses on the whole system of individuals and interpersonal and communication patterns. Clarify roles & reciprocal obligations & to encourage more adaptable behaviors among the members
Feminism the valuing of women & the belief in and advocacy for social, political, & economic equality & liberation for both women and men
Services for the Disabled- Financial Support worker's compensation, supplemental security income, disability insurance
First-order Change in systems theory, a temporary or superficial change in a system and the way it functions
Five Major Axes of the DSM 1. Clinical disorders and conditions not directly attributable to a mental disorder, 2. Personality disorders, 3. Physical conditions, 4. Environmental & psychosocial problems, 5. Global assessment of overall level of functioning
Five Stages a Client goes through in the Course of Dying 1. Denial and isolation, 2. Anger, 3. Bargaining, 4. Depression, 5. Acceptance
Five Types of Treatment Groups 1. Support, 2. Educational, 3. Growth, 4. Therapy, 5. Socialization
Folkways informal, traditional, and not strongly enforced patterns of behavior and standards of conduct in a culture
Formative Evaluation assess the adequacy or amount of effort directed at solving a client system's problem and gathering data during the actual intervention. Focus on the process of providing help instead of the end product of help giving
Formed Groups a group that comes together through some outside influence or intervention, usually having some sponsorship or affiliation & are convened for a particular purpose.
Stages of Group Development- Forming in this stage, group members come together to lay the foundation for the group. Excitement, anxiety, dependence, and uncertainties are the driving motivations. Issues: testing of authority & feelings of inclusion & trust
Four levels of Severity of Mental Retardation mild, moderate, severe, and profound
Four Dimensions of Group Dynamics 1. communication and interaction patterns, 2. cohesion, 3. social integration and influence, 4. group culture
Four Major Areas of Group Dynamics 1. communication & interaction patterns, 2. cohesion, 3. social integration & influenced dynamics, 4. group culture
Framing Solutions during the assessment phase, when the practitioner & client are setting specific objectives
Interaction Patterns- Free-Floating everyone takes responsibility for communication; open for all to speak
Freud id, ego, superego, libido; defense mechanisms; five stages of maturation: oral, anal, phallic, genital; psychoanalytic school
Anna Freud ego psychology
Friendly Visitors volunteers and later paid empl. of the Charity Organization Societies who event. became known as SWs. Primary job was invest. the homes of needy ppl, determine the cause of prob., provide guidance for solv. prob., & as last resort, provide material assiss
Functional Enuresis involuntary urination resulting from psychogenic rather than organic factors. Ex: child wetting the bed after the birth of a new sibling
GANTT Chart scheduling technique to show graphically each of an org. & the time taken to complete each of them. For each activity, there is a horizontal line drawn under calendar dates, & a horizontal bar is drawn to show the duration of time spent on the task
Roles- Gatekeeping upholds rules, regulations and restrictions of a social service agency; attempting to keep communication channels open; facilitating the participation of other; suggesting procedures of others
Gender Identity refers to one's psychological sense of oneself as male or female
Gender Roles the socially constructed and culturally specific behavior and expectations for women and men
General Systems Theory the behavior of societies and people by identifying the components of the systems that interact and the controls that keep these subsystem stable and in a state of equilibrium
The Generalist Intervention Model (G.I.M.) a practice model providing step-by-step direction concerning how to undertake the planned change process, which is generally directed at addressing problems
Generalist Practice the application of an eclectic knowledge base, professional values, and a wide range of skills to target systems of any size, for change within the context of four primary processes
Generalizability ability of a set of results in one situation to fit another circumstance or instance
Genogram a graphic representation of a family tree that displays detailed data on relationships among individuals
Gestalt Groups emphasis is placed on becoming aware of and taking responsibility for one's own actions, on spontaneously expressing emotions and perception, and on recognizing the existence of gaps and distortions in one's own thinking
Grief intense and acute sorrow resulting from loss. It has many of the same symptoms as physical or mental illness, although it tends to diminish with time. However, like all illnesses, grief can end in complete or partial recovery
Grief Reaction experiencing deep sadness as the result of an important loss. This emotional response is normal and in healthy people will gradually subside in a limited time
Grief Work a series of emotional stages or phases following an important loss which gradually permits adjustment and recovery. The individual typically reminisces, expresses emotions, accepts, adjusts to the situation, and forms new relationships
Group (defined) 1. an assemblage of persons or objects gathered or located together, 2. two or more figures that make up a unit, 3. a number of individuals or things considered together because of similarities
Group Attractiveness the extent members wish to be members of a group
Group Development changes through time in a group's internal structures, norms, processes, and culture
Group Dynamics the forces that result from the interactions of group members
Group Purpose identifies the reasons for bringing members together, guides group composition, and works to guide the group's selection of goal-directed activity & define the broad parameters of the services to be delivered
Group Therapy psychotherapy in which a small group of individuals meet with a therapist; interactions among members are considered to be therapeutic
Group Think phenomenon that occurs when group contagion takes over and members fail to express their own thoughts and feelings, instead, going along with the predominant sentiment of the group
Group Work goal-directed activity with small treatment and task groups aimed at meeting socio-emotional needs and accomplishing tasks.
Growth Groups group who offers opportunities for members to become aware of, expand, and change their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding themselves and others, focusing on promoting socio-emotional health rather than socio-emotional illness
Hallucinogens cannabinoids/LSD/mescaline/ phencyclidine/psilocybin physical: increased heart rate & pulse, reduction in vision, inc. in appetite, dec. coordination, dilated pupils. Psychological: euphoria, reduc. of inhibition, apathy, hallucinations, extreme anxiety
Handicaps (definition) resulting disadvantages that may take the form of arbitrary barriers constructed, consciously or unconsciously, by society
Roles- Harmonizing attempting to reconcile disagreements; reducing tension through "pouring oil on troubled waters", getting people to explore their differences
Harro created the cycle of socialization diagram`
The Helping Relationship (Carl Rogers) one of the participants intends that there should come about in one or both parties, more appreciated of, more expression of, more functional use of the latent inner resources of the individual
Heterosexism the societal/cultural, institutional, and individual beliefs and practices that assume that heterosexuality is the only natural, normal, acceptable sexual orientation
Hidden Curriculum includes all of the unrecognized and sometimes unintended knowledge, values, and beliefs that are part of the learning process in schools and classrooms
Holmes-Rahe Scale Life Stress Inventory Scale. Inventory calculating level of stressful events in the last two years
Homeostasis the tendency of a system or organism to maintain stability and, when disrupted, to adapt and strive to restore the stability previously achieved
Homophobia the fear, hatred, or intolerance of lesbians, gay men, or any behavior that is outside the boundaries of traditional gender roles
Interaction Patters- Hot Seat one person speaks while other members watch; increases tension; often used in substance abuse- related groups
Human Agency the process by which people shape social life by adapting to, negotiating with, and charging social structures
Humanistic Paradigm focus on insight into the motivations/needs of the person. Like psychoanalytic, it places greater emphasis on the person's free will rather than on restraining human nature. Emphasis on awareness of motivations & needs. Also called existential paradigm
Human Socialization the process by which one becomes a human being
Hypochondriasis preoccupation with the details of one's bodily functions and excessive concern about the possibility of having a disease
I.C.D. International Classifications of Diseases
Id this represents the instincts and drives
Defense Mechanisms- Idealization overestimation of another person's attributes
Imposed Interview the client is not actually seeking services and in most cases has been ordered to receive treatment
Incremental Budgets agency's budget from last year is used as a starting point for this year's budget
Avenues of Communication- Indifference involves remaining unconcerned, not caring one way of the other, and appearing detachedly aloof
Levels of Oppression- Individual attitudes or action that reflect prejudice against a social group
Individual Classism occurs on a personal or individual level, either in behavior or attitudes, either conscious and intentional or unconscious and unintentional
Individuation processes whereby the undifferentiated tends to become individual, or through which differentiated components tend toward becoming a more invisible whole
Power Bases- Information having information valuable to others
Information Exchange the shared information by groups working together on a common goal
Roles- Information or Opinion Giving offering facts; providing relevant information about a group concern; stating a belief; giving suggestions or ideas
Roles- Information or Opinion Seeking requesting facts; seeking relevant information about a group concern; asking for suggestions or idea
Informed Consent workers should clearly inform clients about the purposes, risks, limitations, possible costs, alternatives, right of refusal, and time frames concerning the services provided
Roles- Initiating proposing tasks or goals; defining the group problem; suggesting a procedure or ideas for solving a problem
Inner-Organizational Collaboration a group of independent organizations who are committed to working together toward a common goal while maintaining their basic independence
Levels of Oppression- Institutional policies, rules, norms, customs
Institutional Classism the ways in which conscious or unconscious classism is manifest in the various institutions of our society
Institutional Discrimination prejudicial treatment in organizations based on official policies, overt behaviors, or behaviors that may be covert but approved by those with power
Interdisciplinary Collaboration the bringing together of individuals from different educational disciplines to provide a service or solve the problems of a client
Interval level of measurement that includes the properties of nominal and ordinal measurements but also requires that there are equal intervals between the units of measurement. Ex: places in a race
Elements of Practice- Intervention the client is involved in the development of a treatment plan based on the assessment. It is individual and respectful of the client's strengths as well as weaknesses
Intra-role Conflict occurs when multiple demands for behavior within a role are incompatible
Intrinsic Motivation when people engage in an activity, such as a hobby, without obvious external incentives
Intake involves the established procedures for an agency's initial contact with a client
Values in the NASW Code of Ethics- Integrity trustworthiness and sound adherence to moral ideals
Avenues of Communication- Intellectualization the process of staging all communication within a strictly logical, rational realm
Defense Mechanisms- Intellectualization the person ignores emotions and analyzes problems or conflicts objectively
Internalized Classism acceptance and justification of classism by working class and poor people, such as feelings of inferiority to higher-class people
Group- Interpersonal Interventions focus on members' relationships with others within and outside the group
Group- Intrapersonal Interventions focus on members' cognition and affects, that is, their thoughts, beliefs, values, feelings, sensations, and emotions
Impairments (definition) physiological abnormalities
Implementation in Generalist Practice deals with carrying out the intervention plan after initial engagement, assessment, and planning
Value is the NASW Code of Ethics- Importance of Human Relationships valuing the mutual emotional exchange; dynamic interaction; and affective, cognitive and behavioral connections that exist between the social worker and the client to create the working and helping atmosphere
Jaffe v. Redmond 1996 ruling that stated conversations between clinical social workers and their clients are protected from disclosure in Federal trials. Clinical SWs and their clients have the right to privileged communication
Dr. Henry Kempe wrote paper on "battered child syndrome". Considered the single most significant event in creating awareness and exposing the realities of abuse. Gave doctors a way to understand and do something about child abuse and neglect
Kubler-Ross "On Death and Dying" Five stages a patient goes through in the course of dying
Kubler-Ross Death Stages 1. Denial & Isolation, 2. Anger, 3. Bargaining, 4. Depression, 5. Acceptance
Labeling application of a name to a person or person's problem based on observed traits or patterns of behavior. Some SWs view labels as a form of name-calling or generalization about people that leads toward stereotyping and away from individualization
Labeling Theory hyp. that when ppl are assigned a label to indicate some kind of deviance others tend to react to the subj. as though they were deviant. The subj. may begin to act in a way that meets the others' expectations. "self-fulfilling prophecy" "Hawthorne Effect"
Styles of Leadership- Laissez-Faire "hands off"; members function on own shared leadership
Lawton & Nahemow developed an ecological model of aging based on the concept of person-environment "fit"
Learning Theory personality as patterns of behavior that have been learned by observing others and being reinforced by others. Behavior is highly variable from one situation to another
Least-Restrictive Environment term educators use for the legal requirement to place children with disabilities in learning situations that meet their special needs while most closely approximating that of the child without disabilities. Not the same as "mainstreaming"
Power Bases- Legitimate degree, age, social class/traits attributed to power
Levels of Assessment 1. The organization that sponsors and sanctions the group, 2. The interorganizational environment, 3. The community environment
Levinson "Seasons of Life"; original work was done with men; early adulthood, midlife transitions, middle adulthood
Libido sexual energy; according to Freud, primary motivator for behavior
Life Cycle the age-related sequence of changes and systematic development that a person experiences between birth and death
Line-Item Budgets statements of expenditures for a designed period of time, usually one year, where each cost item is noted on a separate line
Locality Development community change pursued through broad participation of a wide spectrum of people at the local community level
Longitudinal Research repeated testing of the same phenomenon/measurement subjects over time
Maintenance Roles leader or member roles that focus on the personal relationships among members of the group
First Five Classifications in the DSM-IV disorders diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence; delirium dementia & amnestic & other cog. disorders; mental disorders due to a gen. medical cond. not elsewhere classified; substance abuse related disorders; schizo. & other psychotic disorders
Classifications in the DSM-IV (cont.) mood disorders; anxiety disorders; dissociated; sexual & gender identity disorders; somatoform; factions; eating; sleeping; personality; impulse-control; other
Major Factors in Assessment & Diagnosing of Mental Retardation sig. limitations in adaptive functioning in at least 2 of the following skill areas: communication, self-care, home living, social/interpersonal skills, use of community resources, self-direction, functional academic skills, work, leisure, health, safety
Managing Self-Talk recognizing and correcting patterns of disturbed and/or negative thinking
Interaction Patterns- Maypole leadership-centered; members respond individually; not everyone gets their turn; discourages member participation
Roles- Mediator one who resolves arguments or disagreements among micro, mezzo, or macro systems in conflict; help group members resolve conflicts via helping each side recognize that the other's views are valid, avoiding win-lose situations
Services for the Disabled- Mental Disabilities with deinstitutionalization, the nation moved from inpatient care to outpatient
Metacommunication comm. that indicates how verbal info. should be interpreted; stimuli surrounding the verbal communication that also have meaning, which may or may not be congruent with that of or support the verbal talk. It may support or contradict verbal communication
Meyer's Seven Major Steps in the Planned Change GIM 1. Engagement, 2. Assessment, 3. Planning, 4. Implementation, 5. Evaluation, 6. Termination, 7. Follow-Up
Phases of Group Development- Middle Stages conflicts over norms, roles, and dynamics settle; patterns of interaction are established; deepening of interpersonal relationships; increased grp cohesion; work begins toward est. goals; problem solving, performing, maintenance, intimacy, work, maturity
Interview Process- Middles data gathering, assessment & the offer of help; watching & understanding behavior. Encouragement, summarize, use of silence, open-ended questions, non-verbal communication; trust
Levinson- Middle Adulthood (Ages 40-65) life may be more satisfying & productive than ever before. Wisdom, compassion, disequilibrium
Levinson- Midlife Transition (Ages 40-45) man disc. he has failed to meet his early aspirations; reevaluates his job, marriage & beliefs; may be time of crisis; emotional turmoil, phys. decline, become aware of their mortality. Relates to Erikson's concept of attaining generativity
Levels of Severity of Mental Retardation- Mild IQ 70-52; "educable"; tend not to be distinguishable from children without mental retardation until a much later age; may need supportive services to maintain functioning, especially during times of stress
Defense Mechanisms- Minimization assigning little importance to significant life event or addiction or its consequences
Roles- Mobilizer identifies and convenes community resources to identify unmet needs and effect change
Mobilizing people who have been without a voice and are dispossessed find their voices and begin to believe they can change their circumstances
Levels of Severity of Mental Retardation- Moderate IQ 34-40; "trainable"; achieve social and vocational skills for adequate social functioning; not likely to progress beyond 2nd grade; as adults, may engage in unskilled employment; in need of supervision
Modes of Community Work community development, social planning, social action
Monica McGoldrick & Randy Gerson established genograms
Multi-Infarct Dementia dementia resulting from cardiovascular disease. The dementia is caused by a series of strokes causing a step-by-step deterioration of different mental functions depending on which part of the brain is destroyed
Mutual Support involves caring for the sick, helping the poor or homeless and providing a variety of health and human services
Mutuality the efforts of two or more people to act together in ultimate harmony to achieve benefits for each
Narcotics/Analgesics/Opioids methadone/opiates/propoxyphene; physical: decreased response to pain, dizziness, sedation, blurred vision; psychological: euphoria, reduction in mental function
Narrative Therapy (White & Epston, 70s); holds that our identities are shaped by the accounts of our lives found in our stories or narratives. Therapist is interested in helping others fully desc. their stories & trajectories, modes of living & possibilities assoc. w/ them
NASW Code of Ethics summarizes broad ethical principles and articulates standards for the social work profession
Natural Groups group that comes together spontaneously on the basis of naturally occurring events, interpersonal attraction, or the mutually perceived needs of members. Ex: peer groups, street gangs, cliques
Needs physical, psychological, economic, cultural, and social requirements for survival, well-being, and fulfillment
Needs Assessment systematic appraisal made by social workers and other professionals in evaluating their clients for problems, existing resources, potential solutions, and obstacles to problem solving
Negative Entropy progress of a system toward organization, growth, and development. Social service agencies grow and develop new programs and clientele or improve their means of service delivery
Niche social position or status occupied in the existing social structure and in those social structures of a community by participating groups, relative to power and oppression
Nominal the lowest level of measurement used by researchers, consisting simply of classifying observations into categories(gender, race,age) that must be mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive.
Nonfunctional Roles roles played by members that meet only their needs
Nonverbal Behavior communication in ways other than spoken words
Normalization a multicultural perspective becomes fully ingrained in the organization
Stages of Group Development- Norming stage where ppl get used to working w/ one another. Cooperation over competition, more acceptance, & comfort in giving & receiving feedback. Issues: sharing of responsibility, building confidence in reaching goals, & developing trust & respect among mmbrs
Norms the rules of behavior, both formal and informal, and expectations held collectively by a culture, group, organization, or society
Nurturing Environment in the dual persp., composed of family, friends, and close associates at work or school, ppl w/ whom a person interact freq. & often in an intimate manner. In & thru these relationships a person develops a sense of identity, belonging, & self-worth
Object Relations Theory a psychoanalytic concept about an individual's relationship with others based on early parent-child interactions and internalized self-images that are focused on interactions
Objective Data observations that do not involve personal feelings & are based on observable facts. Can be measured quantitatively or qualitatively
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 gave assurances that limited the use of facilities such as nursing homes for certain individuals
Open Groups members may experience a greater reaction to termination as termination occurs at different points for each member based on their progress and treatment plan
Ordinal level of measurement that entails classifying observations into mutually exclusive categories that can also be ordered along some dimension, such as socioeconomic status
Organizational Theory concerned with how organizations function, what improves or impairs the ability of an organization to accomplish its mission and what motivates people to work toward organizational goals
Outpatient Psychiatric Care received treatment at a health care facility without being admitted for overnight stays or assigned a bed for continuous care
Defense Mechanisms- Overcompensation generally considered to be an effort to engage in counterbalancing a real or imagined deficiency
Over-Attribution tendency to single out one or two obvious client characteristics as the reason for everything the person does
Paradigm a set of shared assumptions and beliefs about how the world works, and structures the perception and understanding of the scientists in a discipline
Paradoxical Intervention/Directive in certain types of family therapy, an approach in which the social worker tells the family members to continue their symptomatic behavior and sometimes to "improve on it"
Paraphrasing in an interview, the SW expresses the idea of what the client has just said so that the relevant points are pulled together & emphasized. This helps clients clarify their own thoughts and assures them that the SW understood the message
Parens Patriae legal doctrine that refers to the role of the state as guardian of ppl who are unable to care for themselves. Most often used to decide to intervene in family matters, such as custody of children, divorce disputes, & removal of children to foster care
Parkinson's Disease disease characterized by progressive motor disability and manifested by tremor or shaking, muscle stiffness, poor coordination, and sometimes dementia
Communication Styles- Passive behavior that does not express an individual;s rights, wants, and feelings directly. It is characterized by silence and no indication of feelings, & frequently results in conceding to the wants of others
Communication Styles- Passive-Aggressive behavior that does not express an individual's rights, wants, & feelings directly. The person seems to be passive, but there is a mixed message. Later, behavior emerges that expresses feelings of anger or hostility
Stages of Group Development- Performing group members are comfortable with each other and everyone is "reading from the same page". Team performance soars and everyone's highest concern is team success. Issues: continuous accomplishment of goals and maintaining the momentum
The Personal Fable (Elkind in '67)- a form of egocentrism normally exhibited during early adolescence. The adolescent assumes his/her experiences are unique from those of others
Person-In-Environment a system of classification that utilizes social work's unique approach to the total person in describing the problems of social functioning of adult clients
P.E.R.T. Program Evaluation and Review Technique
Phases of Group Process and Development forming, norming, storming, conforming, and deforming
Phases of treatment referral, intake, assessment, diagnostic, treatment plan, treatment review, termination, aftercare
Planned Change the development and implementation of a strategy for improving or altering a specified set of circumstances, pattern of behavior, or condition that affects a person's social functioning
G.I.M.- Planning developing treatment plan together with client
Planning Model for Group Work Establish the grp's purpose, assess the potential sponsorship & membership, recruit mmbrs, compose the group, orient members to the group, contracting, preparing the group's environment, securing financial arrangements, prepare a written group proposal
Pluralism power is relatively de-centralized. Ex: the modern democracy
Power-and-Control Phase second stage in group development in which group members tend to lose their guardedness & ambivalence & begin to establish their respective roles in the group, as leaders, followers, talkers, passive members, etc.
Practice Evaluation focus on the effectiveness or results of what individual social workers do. It may take the single subject designs, task achievement scaling, client satisfaction surveys, or goal attainment scaling
Pre-affiliation first stage in group development in which group members tend to be ambivalent about belonging, fearful, guarded, distant, & reluctant to engage in self-disclosure and risk taking
Primary Alcoholism ind. has high tolerance for alcohol, drinks in response to physiological withdrawal symptoms, puts drinking ahead of all other activities. This appears to be a genetically influenced disease and begins, in most ppl between ages 25-35
Primary Goal in Crisis Intervention to help the client return to the pre-crisis level of functioning
Privileged Communication the premise & understanding between a professional & client that the information revealed by the client will not be divulged to others without expressed permission (except when there is a risk of public danger or a threat to the public good)
Most Important Issue in Problem Identification the absolute responsibility to involve the client in the process of problem identification
Problems involve any source of perplexity or distress
Process Recording method of writing about the SW/client interactions during the intervention process. Case record- face sheet, presenting problem, statement of goals, written contract, entries for each contact the client makes w/the SW or agency
Levels of Severity of Mental Retardation- Profound IQ below 20 or 25; experience serious dysfunction in the area of sensorimotor function; in need of a constant caregiver; are in need of close supervision in a controlled setting
Program Evaluation focus on the effectiveness and results of entire programs. It might include needs assessments, process analysis, outcome analysis, and cost benefit analysis
Brief Therapy with Individuals- Psychoanalytic seeks core interpersonal issues; focus on given moment in time and relate issues to stage of development
Psychodrama technique used prim. in grp therapy in which clients perform roles often playing the parts of thems. in various socially stress. sit. & sometimes playing the parts of their antagonist. Other grp mmbrs play roles which gives all a chance to relate
Psychodynamic cognitive & emotional mental processes that consc. motivate one's behavior. These proc. are the product of the interplay b/w one's genetic & bio. heritage, the sociocultural milieu, past & current realities, perceptual abilities & one's exper. & memories
Psychosocial Evaluation collection of data about a patient's psychological, development, family, occupational and social background & current status
Psychosocial Theory looks at biological & physical development; psychological development and cultural norms which effect these; environmental development; takes 3 systems & evaluates individual through them; need a culturally diverse knowledge base
Services for the Disabled- Public Education education of children with disabilities as well as adults with disabilities is required in the "least restrictive environment"
Quasi-Experimental Design test for cause & effect; designs lack randomization; comparing groups that are not equal in characteristics; tendency to study many variables of a single group over time; findings are not as strong as an experimental design
Racism the belief that objective or alleged differences between racial groups are justification for asserting the superiority of one racial group over another
Rank Functional School; focus on the client's use of agency structure, function, & the relationship w/ the worker to assess the client's functioning
Rankian School/ Functional School in Social Work based partly on the "will" concept of Rank & Taft. The approach deemphasized diagnostic inquiry, history taking, & Freudian theory; instead it stressed a strategy that was time-limited & focused on those issues that came w/in the function of the agency
Rape Trauma Syndrome women can experience serious psychological effects that can persist for a half-year or more following rape. Now considered a specific aspect of PTSD; Acute phase & long-term reorganization phase
Rathus Assertiveness Schedule an instrument composed of 30 items that measure an individual's assertiveness
Defense Mechanisms- Rationalization making excuses for the problems caused by the dependence on alcohol
Reaction Formation def. mech. in which the person behaves or thinks in ways or assumes values that are the opp. of the orig. uncons. trait. Thus, a SW who has an uncons. dislike for children might spec. in working with them, advo. more-string. legal meas against child abuse
Reactive Alcoholism characterized by heavy or excessive drinking that starts soon after experiencing a perceived crisis such as the death of a loved one, surviving an accident, or crime victimization
Reactivity in Measurements the phenomenon of the measurement process producing change in what is measured
Reality Therapy client is helped to develop a succ. identity based on love & worth. Focus on the client's behavior rather than feelings & on the present & future rather than past. Little emphasis on case histories. Used the most in govt: state & federally funded prog.
Power Bases- Reference identification: traits that group members want to be identified with
Phases of Treatment- Referral data exchange of information regarding services provided by either the professional or the agency, the matching of agency/professional services with the client's concerns, location of the services, & a time for initiating services
Reframing also called relabeling or redefining; technique used by family therapists to help families understand a symptom or pattern of behavior by seeing it in a different context
Regression behaviors & thought patterns that indicate a return to earlier or more primitive levels of development. This phenomenon is often seen in ppl who are exposed to severe stress, trauma, or conflicts that go unresolved.
Services for the Disabled- Rehabilitation Services & Education historically, this is one of the oldest kinds of service offered. By the 1830s, hospitals & "insane asylums" were commonly built
Elements of Practice- Relationship the relationship between the client and SW is viewed as the vehicle for helping in this approach
Relative Confidentiality a more global concept to protect clients' privacy, yet permit some degree of disclosure, particularly to other agency staff who may need information to perform their part in the planned change process
Resiliency the ability of an individual, family group, community or organization to recover from adversity and resume functioning even when suffering serious trouble, confusion, or hardship
Retrenchment cutting back, as in reducing the agency's expenditures or services to a previous and reduced level
Reversal Design (ABAB) Also called "withdrawal"; A: baseline, B:intervention, A: return to baseline, B: reintroduction to intervention. Strength is the withdrawal
Power Bases- Reward social or tangible rewards that lead to power and influence; ability to provide positive reinforcement to another person. Ex: salary increases, praise, promotions
Mary Richmond brought us the concept of social diagnosis
Right to Treatment legal principle, est. by Wyatt v. Stickney, an ind. who is confined in an institution has the right to receive the treatment nec. to offer a reasonable chance for improv. so that the person can function independently & be released from that institution
Rogerian Therapy/Person-Centered/Client Centered developed by Rogers in 40s-50s. Showing congruence, empathy, and unconditional positive regard toward a client. Therapist creates a supportive, non-judgmental envir. in which the client is encouraged to reach their full potential
Role Ambiguity a situation in which the expectations of a role are unclear or diffuse either to the person enacting it or to the relevant other
Role Incapacity exists when an individual cannot adequately perform a role
Role Incongruence role stress that occurs when an individual undergoes role transitions requiring a significant modification in attitudes and values
Role Theory based on the sociocultural and anthropological investigation which pertain to the way people are influenced in their behaviors by the variety of social positions they hold and the expectations that accompany those positions
Roles shared expectations about the functions of group members; the norm that people take on and act out in the group
ROPES Assessment Model Brief Therapy Perspective; Where are the client's Resources, Options, Possibilities, Exceptions, Solution
Interaction Patterns- Round Robin each member takes a turn and talks; lack of group communication as a whole
Virginia Satir major theoretician & educator in family therapy; developed many of the innovative communications concepts of the field
Scapegoat a family or group member who is made to bear the blame for others or to suffer in their place
Scheme the mental structure, described in Piagetian theory, that allows information to be understood & processed if it fits the individual's cognitive processes
School Change Model emphasizes institutional change with the aim of altering conditions within a school setting
Secondary Alcoholism includes concerns such as individuals who are experiencing major psychiatric disorders before the onset of drinking prob. Most common of these mental illnesses are affective disorder & antisocial personality disorder
Secondary Gain the advantages or benefits one derives from a physical or mental illness, such as attention, freedom from responsibility, and disability benefits
Self-Determination acknowledges people's right to make their own decisions and determine their own course of action
Self-fulfilling Prophecy an expectation one has of another person, group, or social phenomenon that influences the way that person, group, or phenomenon is subsequently perceived
Self-Observation members examine an assessment of their own behavior. There are four types: charting, logs & diaries, problem cards, self-anchored rating scale
Sensitivity Groups training and consciousness-raising grp; Mmbrs participate in discussions & experiential activities to demonstrate how grps function, to show how mmbrs affect others, & to help become aware of behaviors & feelings
Service those programs offered in order to provide people with that which they need to survive, develop, and even succeed in society. Ex: job training, housing, literacy programs
Values in the NASW Code of Ethics- Service the provision of help, resources and benefits so that people may achieve their maximum potential
Services for the Disabled rehabilitation services & education, employment services, public education, mental health, financial support
Roles- Setting Standards expressing standards for the group to achieve; applying standards in evaluating group functioning and production
Levels of Severity of Mental Retardation- Severe IQ 20-25 to 35-40; possess little, if any, communication skill or speech during early childhood; may be trained to talk and perform simple self-care; function in community life with extremely close supervision
Sexism prejudice or discrimination based on sex, especially discrimination against women
Sexual Orientation the desire for intimate emotional and sexual relationships with people of the same gender (lesbian, gay), the other gender (heterosexual), or either gender (bisexual)
Single Subject Design often used in clinical sit. for the assessment of intervention effec.; most widely used by SW researchers; can be used w/ both ind. and grps; allows for the use of repeated measures to est. trends & analyze change; ref. to as "AB" design; feedback is imp.
Single-System Evaluation the changes in the outcome measure are noted that coincide with the intervention, and the clients or systems are observed repeatedly before, during, and after interventions
Six Developmental Stages of Group Work 1. Planning, 2. Beginning, 3. Assessment, 4. Middle, 5. Evaluation, 6. Ending
Six Goals of Family Preservation 1. protect children 2.maintain and strengthen family bonds 3. stabilize the crisis situation 4. inc. the family's skills & competencies 5. facilitate the family's use of informal helping resources 6. prevent unnecessary out-of-home placement of children
Social Action can be used to remedy imbalances of power and advocate on behalf of communities of people
Social Action Groups a group who works to empower members to engage in collective action & planned change efforts to alter some aspect of their social or physical environment
Social Control the community's efforts to make sure members live within the norms of the community
Social Desirability Bias inclination to present oneself in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others. Can cause difficulty in research
Social History in the case record, describes the person's family & socioeconomic background & relevant developmental experiences. Forms the basis for SW assessment & service planning
Values in the NASW Code of Ethics- Social Justice the idea that in a perfect world, all citizens would have the same basic rights, protection, opportunities, obligations and social benefits
Social Learning Theory focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context. It considers that people learn from one another, including such concepts as observational learning, imitation, and modeling. Reinforcement & punishment
Social Participation the involvement of community members in various activities designed to enhance a sense of belonging
Social Planning community organization, community development, program development, social policy analysis, program implementation, & strategic management planning
Social Planning a technical process of problem solving with regard to substansive social problems (the emphasis is to call in experts or consultants to work with designated community leaders)
Social Reform the development and improvement of social conditions, by actively pursuing a legislative agenda designed to improve client services and meet large-scale problems with large-scale programs
Social Roles society's expectations for people in particular social positions
Social Stratification the division of society into classes (for example, upper class, middle class, working class, lower class, underclass) according to such criteria as economic level, educational level, or cultural value orientation
Social Systems Theory Luhmann, Parsons; provides a way to understand systems and how people interact with them. The goal is to solve problems in social functioning by changing interaction with systems. Underlies both generalist practice and eco-systems practice
Socialization the process by which knowledge, values, beliefs, and behaviors are taught to members of the community
Socialization Groups group that works to help members learn social skills and socially accepted behaviors so they can function effectively in the community, often using activities such as games, role plays, or outings to help members accomplish individual goals
Social Work Modes of Treatment individual, groups, children, community, family
Levels of Oppression- Societal/Cultural social norms, roles, rituals, language, music
Solution-Focused Intervention change-oriented and is focused on the problem at hand. Encourages the client to use their own strengths. Based on: small change brings about further change. When clients are able to see some difference, they begin to value their own coping skills
Stages of Group Development- Storming members begin to realize the amount of complicated work ahead & sometimes panic. Issues: power, control, conflict
Brief Therapy with Individuals- Strategic or Solution Oriented asks what happens and how, not why. Emphasis on what the client can do, strengths; use of tasks
Staff Development Groups group whose purpose is to improve services to clients by developing, updating, and refreshing workers' skills
Stages of Maturation Freud; Oral- birth-18 mo; Anal- 18 mo- 3; Phallic- 4-6; Latency- 6-puberty (libido in suspension); Genital- puberty-death
Statute of Limitations law that specifies the amt of time w/in which a person must be charged w/ a crime or sued for damages. Courts do not hear cases inv. acts that occurred beyond this time limit. Major exc. is homicide: person can be charged w/ this crime at any time
Stimulants amphetamines/meth./cocaine; physical- increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure; psychological- increased sense of well-being, euphoria, dizziness, insomnia; high doses- psychosis, paranoia, & delusions, heart failure, seizures
Strategic Planning proc. of form. or implicitly defining long-term goals and the alt. means toward their accomp. The goals are defined by specifying the target of interv., auspices, value imp., feasibility, & interrelationships among various components of the social system
The Strengths Perspective orientation focusing on client resources capabilities, knowledge, abilities, motivations, experience, intelligence, and other positive qualities can be put to use to solve problems and pursue change
Structural Family Therapy procedure in family therapy based on identifying and changing maladaptive arrangements, interactions, and the internal organization of subsystems and boundaries of a family
Structure the use of systematic, planned, and time-limited interventions and activities
Avenues of Communication- Submission involves feelings so down-trodden, guilt-ridden or incapable that you succumb to another's will
Defense Mechanisms- Substitution replacement of an unattainable or unacceptable objective with one that is attainable and acceptable
Roles- Summarizing pulling together related ideas, restating suggestions after the group has discussed them; offering a decision or conclusion for the group to accept or reject
Superego last part of the mind to develop; moral part of the mind; becomes an embodiment of parental and societal values; stores and enforces rules; constantly strives for perfection
Supervision an educational or informational exchange process in which knowledge is exchanged for the purpose of improving prof. skills. It is also a management or administrative tool used for the purpose of accomplishing particular tasks, duties, or responsibilities
Supervisor/Worker Split good cop/bad cop; you use someone else (supervisor) to pierce the denial, maintaining your relationship
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) a major source of income for low-income people with disabilities. It is a means tested program that includes a limit on assets; federally funded.
Support Groups a group whose major goals are: to foster mutual aid, to help members' coping ability so that they can effectively adapt to and cope with future stressful life events
Supportive Treatment designed primarily to help individuals maintain adaptive patterns. This is done in the interview through reassurance, active giving, information providing, and pointing out client strengths and resources
Survey Research Design systematic fact-gathering procedure in which a specified series of questions is asked, through written or oral questionnaires, of a representative sample of the group being studied or of the entire population
Sustaining Environment in the dual pers., made up of the ppl one encount. & learns to deal w/ in the wider comm. & broad. soc. Inc. pol. org., work settings, labor unions, ed. systems, health care fac., human service prog. & the media that ppl must int. w/ in order to survive
Syntality behavioral characteristics of a group perceived as parallel to or inferable from the personality structure of an individual
School Social Work Models- Systems and Prevention Model emphasis is directed toward changing the school, family, and community
Systems Theory understanding adaptive relations; problems are seen as transaction b/w these relations; used to see and understand the relationship between collective community and in families & individuals
Systems Theory provides SWs w/ a conceptual perspective that can guide how they view the world, focusing on the interactions of various systems in the environment including individuals, groups, families, organizations, and communities
T-Group a training group, often made up of people who work together in one organization, that emphasizes communication, self-development, and cooperative problem-solving
Tarasoff v Regents 1976 ruling that stated psychotherapists whose clients tell them that they intend to harm someone are obligated to warn the intended victim
Target Behavior in behavior modification, the behavior or behaviors selected for analysis or modification. First step in the therapist's behavioral assessment
Target Groups access to power is limited or denied
Brief Therapy with Individuals- Task-Centered empirical; address client's perceived issues through instruction during and between sessions. Therapist may assume some tasks for the client
Task Groups mostly concerned with creating new ideas, developing plans and programs, solving problems that are external to the group, and making decisions about the organizational environment
Task Roles leader or member roles that help the group select and define the common goals and work toward solution of these goals
Erikson- Tasks to Achieve trust, autonomy, initiative, competence, identity, generativity, integrity, acceptance
Teams a number of individual staff members, each of whom possesses particular knowledge and skills, who come together to share their expertise with one another for a particular purpose
Phases of Treatment- Termination collection of data relevant for summarizing the treatment experience & also for identification of concerns which required attention either immediately or at a later time
Termination in Task Groups the decisions, reports, recommendations, and other products of the group as a whole are completed, and consideration is given as to how the results of the work can best be implemented
Termination in Treatment Groups the changes made by individual group members are stabilized, and plans are made for maintaining these gains after the group ends
Theory an organized body of knowledge that attempts to explain some aspect of reality in a manner that may be verified in an empirical manner
Therapeutic Dogmatism belief that one particular theoretical system along with its related treatment approach is superior, and therefore should be applied in all situations.
Therapy Groups a group that helps members change their behavior, cope with and improve personal problems, or rehabilitate themselves after physical, psychological, or social trauma
Thinking Norms shared beliefs and ideas
Tolerance the need for markedly increased amounts of alcohol to achieve intoxication or desired effect, or markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of alcohol
Traditional School Social Work Model places special attention on individual children who are experiencing social, emotional, or physical problems that prevent them from adequately functioning within a school setting
Transactional Analysis (Berne)- ppl make decisions based on past assumptions that were once appropriate for their needs but may have become invalid. Uses cognitive, rational, and behavioral aspects of therapy. Terms include stroking, game/racket, and structural analysis
Transactional Analysis Groups explores the way clients tend to interact with others; play games; perform roles as though scripted to do so; and are influenced by the three parts of the mental-cultural apparatus known as the "parent", "adult", and "child"
Transference (psychoanalytic theory)- refers to emotional reactions that are assigned to current relationships by originated in earlier, often unresolved & unconscious experiences. Used as a tool for understanding & working through past conflicts
Transsexual/Transgendered a person whose biological sex does not match their gender identity and who, through gender reassignment surgery and hormone treatments, seeks to change their physical body to match their gender identity
Treatment Conferences a group that meets for the purpose of developing, monitoring, and coordinating treatment plans for a particular client or client system
Treatment Groups a group whose major purpose is to meet members' socioemotional needs, such as their needs for support, education, growth, therapy, and socialization
Phases of Treatment- Treatment Plan 1. presenting prob./concern, 2. precip. factors leading to the need for services, 3. clin. contract, 4. clin. goals (long and short-term) and a program. statement which may include a desc. of either the model to be empl. for dealing w/ the problem
Phases of Treatment- Treatment Review provides quality assurance and a periodic review of progress made toward meeting treatment plan goals. This phase allows for the identification of treatment concerns and integration of the treatment process toward dealing with these concerns
Unimposed Interview the client is actively seeking services
Universalization interv. used by SW to reassure & encourage the client. Places the client's exp. in the context of other ind. who are experiencing the same challenges, and seeks to help the client grasp that his/her feelings & experiences are not uncommon given the circ.
Unstructured Interview method of interview where ?s can be changed or adapted to meet the client's intelligence, understanding, or beliefs. Do not offer a limited, pre-set range of answers for a client to choose, instead adv. listening to how each ind. person responds to the ?
Value Suspension inappropriate intrusion of values into practice situations
Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 put in place to correct the problem of discrimination against people with disabilities in the U.S.; Includes Affirmative Action; defines disability; contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS are covered
Whistle-Blowing the act of informing on another or making public an individual's, group's, or organization's corrupt, wrong, illegal, wasteful, or dangerous behavior
Withdrawal those symptoms experienced when no alcohol/substance is consumed, or a need to take alcohol/substance or closely related substance to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms
Worker's Compensation compensation for injury on the job. State laws require employers to purchase insurance to cover compensation. People with permanent injury can get a monthly sum for life
Worker-Observation the facilitator's examination and assessment of the group member's behavior. Four types: naturalistic observation, role playing, simulations, and program activities
Wyatt v Stickney 1971 ruling that says mentally impaired patients have the right to the "least restrictive environment"
Created by: 1528704640 on 2010-02-11

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