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# Prax 0014 sci laws

### Praxis II test 0014 science - prominent scientific laws

scientific law some statement of fact that is proven time and time again
scientific theory a statement, which is based upon educated observations, tested, and may be proven.
4 conservation laws conservation of mass/matter, conservation of energy, conservation of momentum, charge conservation
conservation of mass/matter matter cannot be created or destroyed but can be rearranged
conservation of energy energy remains constant in a system and cannot be recreated, but can change forms
conservation of momentum total momentum remains the same unless acted upon by an outside force (p=mv)
charge conservation electric charge can neither be created nor destroyed but is always conserved
gas laws (2) Boyle's law, ideal gas law
Boyle's law For a specified amount of gas kept at a specified temperature, pressure and volume are inversely proportional (while one increased the other decreases) (PV=k)
Ideal gas law the state of an amount of gas is determined by its pressure, volume and temperature (PV=nRT)
Einstein's laws (2) mass-energy equivalence, general relativity
mass-energy equivalence when a body has a mass it has a certain energy even if it is not moving (E=mc^2)
general relativity gravitational attraction between masses is a result of the nearby masses. gravity has waves.
Newton's laws (5) First Law: Law of Inertia, Second Law: Law of Acceleration, Third law: Law of reciprocal actions, Fourier's law (Law of head conduction), general law of gravitation
First Law: Law of inertia an object will remain at rest or in motion unless acted upon by an outside force
second law: law of acceleration an object will move in the direction of the force applied to it. The object's acceleration is proportional to the force applied to it and inversely proportional to the mass of the object
third law: law of reciprocal actions for every action there is an opposite and equal reaction
fourier's law (law of heat conduction) the transfer of heat moves through matter from higher temperatures to lower temperatures in order to equalize differences
general law of gravitation descrbies the gravitational attraction between two masses; gravitational force between two objects is equal to the gravitational constant times the product of the two masses divided by the distance between them squared [F=G(m1m2(r^2))]
electromagnetic laws (2) Ohm's law, Faraday's Law of Induction
Ohm's Law Measures voltage and current in electrical circuits; states that the current going through a conductor is equal to the voltage divided by the resistor (I=V/R)
Faraday's Law of Induction explains the ways that voltage can be generated; any change in the magnetic environment of a coil of wire will cause voltage to be produced (EMF)
Darwin's Laws (5) Natural selection, evolution, common descent, multiplication of species, gradualism
natural selection individual organisms with favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce
evolution the world is in a constant state of change
common descent every group of living organisms on earth descended from a common ancestor
multiplication of species species split into or produce other species depending on geographical location
gradualism changes occur through the slow gradual change of population, not through fast sudden production of new beings
Kepler's Laws (Planetary Motion) (3) Law of Ellipses, Law of Equal Areas, Law of Harmonies
Law of Ellipses The path of the planets around the sun is an elliptical shape with the center of the sun being at the focus
Law of equal areas the speed of the planets' is constantly changing. a planet moves fastest when it is near the sun and slowest further away
law of harmonies compares the orbital period of the radius of the orbit of a planet to the other planets; provides an accurate description of the time and distance of the planets' orbit around the sun
Created by: allie424 on 2009-11-04