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english short story

english short story terms

Setting place in which the actions of the story take place
protagonist character who the audience is rooting for because of a personal habit with him or her
conflict what the protagonist must face that is hard in the story
foreshadowing words or actions that shows what might happen later on
climax when the protagonist is facing his enemy and you don't know who will win
irony the use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning
allegory a representation of an abstract or spiritual meaning through concrete or material forms
point of view a specified or stated manner of consideration or appraisal; standpoint
characterization describing the character
direct presentation character is told to us straight out by analyzing/ or another character
indirect presentation shows us the characters through their actions(dramatized)
dramatized shows us who they are through situations in story
flat characters their traits easily summed up in 2 or 3 sentences
round characters complex; 3-dimensional (real people)
moralizing human experience put out on the paper right there; easily seen(moral)
dramatized human experience to make you think about it by over doing the situation (makes you think of moral)
stock character stereotyped; we know them at once
static character same person through whole book
developing (dynamic) character undergoes some distant change. They have an EPIPHANY
omniscient p.o.v 3rd person; not a character, all knowing; can get into the mind of everyone
third-person limited p.o.v 3rd person; only knows what they know and see happening- one character
first person p.o.v exactly like 3rd person limited but it is in 1st person
point of view who tells the story, and therefore, of how it gets told
stream of consciousness apparently random thoughts going through a characters head within a certain period of time
object p.o.v. 3rd person; can see physical things but not psychological. Like a camera- can't go past the surface. (Also called DRAMATIC POINT OF VIEW)
Author of "The Lottery'? Shirley Jackson
important facts of the setting of "The Lottery" summer, atmosphere=happy turning to nervous., mid-west farming region
Mrs. Hutchinson- "The Lottery" Mrs. Hutchinson--> indirect because she "forgets" what day it was, we aren't told she is forget full or thinks that this day isn't that important we are shown it
Tessie- "The Lottery" static character because she doesn't change. she doesn't have an epiphany about the whole ordeal happening, she only reacts this way because her family/she was the one to be stoned
Old Man Warner-"The Lottery" direct--> it says that he is old etc
Attitudes towards the lottery Mr. Summers--> developed a routine; Old Man Warner--> for the lottery, doesn't want to change tradition; Mr. Mrs. Adams--> not want it anymore, talk about the other towns who don't do it anymore; Villagers--> agree with it. All they ever knew
P.O.V in "The Lottery" objective p.o.v.-> just knows what you see and hear. Detached tone, shows how horrifying the story is
Plot Structure of "The Lottery" conflict= NO one knows who would be picked; then someone had to be killed. Tessie is killed. Antagonist- lottery Conflict also- society vs. tradition= not resolved; stays the same
Irony of "The Lottery" situational irony- Tessie has to die when she came late to the lottery. The title "The Lottery"= Lottery usually is good thing; not in this story
"How I Met My Husband"-author Alice Munro
Antagonist the person who is competing or struggling against the good guy or protagonist
coincidence a striking occurrence of two or more events; apparently by chance
plot storyline; the plan , scheme, or main story of a lit. work
foil character minor character whose situation or actions parallel those of a major character; compliments/highlights mayor character's situation
situational irony when the unexpected thing happens
p.o.v. of "How I Met My Husband" 1st person. The Person is Edie, she is 15 years old in the story but the story is being told by the adult verision of herself. The Adult Edie is reflecting upon the experience and giving insight upon this certain situation
"How I Met My Husband" title= situational irony b/c we think Chris is gonna be the husband but really its the mailman. Time= after WWI
Edie- In "How I Met My Husband" Edie's fmaily is a classic country family so when she goes to the Peebles she is amazed by everything. She is very naive. She is shy, not experienced in the world- ex "Are you intimate with him"- "yes"
Foil character in "How I Met My husband" Alice is the foil character. She effects Edie's future when she walked in. Alice keeps running after Chris but Edie, by moving one, got the better deal by marring the mailman
verbal irony is the figure of speech in which the speaker says the opposite of what he or she intends to say
dramatic irony contrast between what a character says or thinks and what the reader knows to be true
irony of situation most important. discrepancy between appearance and reality or between expectation and fulfillment or between what is and what would be
sentimenality not genuine emotion:forced or unearned emotion
editoralize instruct us how to feel
poeticize use of immoderately heightened and distended language to accomplish their efforts
Theme a piece of fiction is its controlling idea or its central insight. IT IS NOT MORAL
"Everyday Use"- author Alice Walker
p.o.v of "everyday use" 1st person; unreliable because she is the only one interpreting the events. Mama is the narrator .
Mama- "Everyday Use" Does everything like a man can do. Indirect- gives her kids what they want> Dee commands/ scares her mom. Mama doesn't know what to do; how to stand up to her
Dee- "Everyday Use" very commanding/leader. temper: scalding humor-sarcastic/ bitter
pathos a quality that evokes pity or sadness
irony a situation or a use of language involving some kind of incongruity or discrepancy
symbol something that means more than what it is; an object, person situation or action that in addition to its literal meaning suggests other meaning as well
example of pathos in "The Drunkard" when father gets mad at Larry for being drunk. When Larry has to act as a guardian for his grown father
irony in "The Drunkard" larry getting drunk
symbol in "The Drunkard" "The Drunkard"
"The Drunkard"-humor/sad Larry acting as a stereotypical drunk. yelling at the lady's. a little boy being drunk... little kid gets drunk with father. Father is more important about his pride when safety of Larry. sad position for Larry to be in, to stop his fathers drinking
p.o.v. of "The Drunkard" Adult looking back
:The Drunkard" symbols-clock clock represents cylce of drinking/dry spell. Circular motion. When the clock is gone the tension is really bad and he is alone because his father is drinking
Symbol something that means more then what it suggests one the surface
Allegory story that has a second meaning beneath the surface, endowing a cluster of charachters, objects, or events with added significance; other the pattern relates each literal item to a corresponding abstract idea or moral principle
fantasy is one that transcends the bounds of known reality
magical realism real setting with improbable events
fiction story that didn't happen but could. sounds realistic but made up to create a story. Fantasy is a type of fiction
fantasy couldn't happen but still probable
"The Cask of Amontillado"- Edgar Allen Poe
Montresor mason/win-direct characterization. Motto/wine-indirect characterization. he thinks he is the good guy. Motivation: revenge- take Fortunato out of win successes/little things Fortunato did/ Fortunato insultshim/rivalry/Fortunato being better then him/Pride
1st passage of "The Cask.." Montresor puts on a good guy face but is plotting evil inside. Wants the readers to think he has a real reason and that he is the good guy- SNEAKY. wants Fortunato to know the reason why he has died
Fortunato arrogant/wealthy connosseur. Wants Amontillado so badly- PRIDE. provoked by Luchesi
2nd passage of "The Cask..." setting: carnival. He is drunk- happy mood. Montresor is pleased to see him- irony
3rd passage in "The Cask..." MOntresor told servants to stay home when he knows they will leave to party- irony.= reverse psychology
4th passage of ... Montresor is jealous of Fortunato. "you will not die of a cough"- "true"- ironic
last passage- stiuational irong: stops building wall. "my hear grew sick"
YGB- What is the importance of the setting/atmosphere of the first 2 pages? who is the author? dark, eerie..Salem- witch town. Going one a mission for a present evil purpose- Faith doesn't want him to go. it is sunset/night. They are both on the edge/nervous. Nathaniel Hawthrone.
equivocation a sneaky way of telling the truth
diction word choice
"his present evil purpose" evil- negative word. dreary road/gloomiest trees. lonely footsteps/only one in the forest as he walks .< loneliness and darkness
oldman/devil 50 years old but resemblance to YGB. decent attire> direct. INdirect--> staff with a serpent on it. Antagonist. Round--> complex; two sided; happy face/devil. indirect--> he laughs at YGB; shows he is cruel
why is the resemblance so important? the devil has taken on the shape of TGB's relatives. But why is this...if he was just a devil looking like one YGB may not have continued on. The resemblance is kind of safety
P.O.V.- 3rd person limited from YGB p.O.V. up until last paragraph. last paragraph= author telling us; talking to us
YGB about himself he feels he can resist the temptation in the forest. he has some hubris
seeing the upstanding people in the forest Goody Cloyse- religion teacher. allusion. he feels betrayed because all these people who taught him his religion are evil
conflict of "YGB" temptation
why does YGB go into the forest? he is curious and he thinks he can go in and come back out just fine. He leaves behind his Faith. He feels there is know play in his life where faith doesn't belong.
"Welcome my children...to the communion of your race...you have found your nature and your destiny" saying they are all in the communion for awhile. you are going to belong to something.
What is the prize and why is it bad. in YGB Devil says this to get YGB to join time. The prize is to see into peoples heart. but since he is the father of lies he really isn't free. He can't forget the "dream" he lives with doom and gloom because he is bound by the knowledge the evil gave him
Created by: krzykap