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SLA Practices 1

Midterm Exam Review

Communication Interpretation, expression, & negotiation of meaning
Language An implicit system that relates sound / signs and their meaning that includes knowledge of phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicon, & semantics
Second language non-native language after the acquisition of the native language. Internalizing of implicit knowledge of a second language
Acquisition Accumulation of form meaning connections
Input Oral or written language that learners are exposed to that has a communicative intent
Simplified input 5 characteristics; how it promotes form meaning connection: language is structured to make certain features more acoustically salient by…..
IE (input enhancement): Any attempt to draw learner’s attention to formal properties of language while learners are processing input for meaning. (input flood, text enhancement, structured input)
Structured input: Manipulated input to push learners away from non-optimal processing strategies and drive them to depend on forms in order to get meaning. (referential/affective)
Referential Right or wrong questions
Affective Opinion questions
Intake filtered subset of input that is processed by the learner. It’s the language that a learner actually attends to.
Input Processing principles: 4 ---Lexical preference (preference for non-redundancy; primacy of content words); meaning before non-meaning; sentence location; first noun.
Output oral or written language that learners produce that has communicative intent
Access activating the lexical and grammatical forms necessary to express particular meanings
Production strategies: what learners use to string the lexical items and forms together to create utterance
Developing system/ Interlanguage: implicit system of words and rules. The dynamic language system that an L2 learner has who hasn’t become fully proficient but is approximating the target language. It contains features from L1, TL, and other elements.
Processability Hierachy: Lemma procedure, category, phrasal procedure, Simplified S, Sentence, & Subordinate Clause.
Lemma procedure lexical items and chunks
Category use of inflections on lexical items
Phrasal procedure use of inflection in a phrase
Simplified S Procedure: variation of canonical word order (move around)
Sentence subject-verb agreement
Subordinate Clause exchange of information across clause boundaries
Hierarchy order Realization of one procedure implies the realization of the one before it, not the other way around.
Noticing noticing the holes or gaps of what you don’t know about the language
Hypothesis testing try out words and get feedback that confirms or denies your hypothesis.
Metatalk using language to talk about language in some kind of task
Creative aspect of language being able to create and understand new sentences never before spoken or heard.
Binding the cognitive and affective mental process of linking form and meaning, associating with the meaning and not the translation.
Grammar a set of rules of language
Universal grammar biological part of our brain that we are born with which gives us the ability to learn languages / an innate knowledge source that contains human language possibility
UG: Principles finite set of universal, common to all languages
UG: Parameters finite number of 2 or more settings that determine syntactic variability among languages
Teaching/pedagogical grammar: explicit statement of language rules comparing with the learner’s native language
Descriptive grammar how do people actually use the language
Prescriptive grammar how we should use the language correctly
Linguistic competence: knowledge of words and grammar
Linguistic performance use of knowledge in communication and comprehension
Prestige dialect dialect used by upper class (Standard dialect )
Gloss bilingual vocabulary list
Discreetness human languages are composed of discreet units: sounds, words, phrases according to the rules of the grammar of the language
Displacement capacity to talk or sign language that is not related to here and now
Critical period important time to acquire language
TPR: Total Physical Response learners carry out actions commanded by instructor (promote form - meaning binding without the restriction of verbal output)
Prototype a central form of a concept and the things they see and talk about correspond better or worse with this prototype.
Parsing Building syntactic structure word by word during sentence comprehension.
Incrementality and immediacy: learners tend to parse word by word, fit every word immediately into its syntactic category and predict what’s coming next.
Corpus dictionary words based on their frequency of use
Content words words with actual meaning--- nouns, adjectives…. (open class)
Functional words no real meaning---pronouns, prepositions… (closed class)
Inflectional morphemes: redundancy---hard to process
Syntax sentence structure, rules for combing words into sentences, relationship between words
Created by: trobayna