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Ling final

Study of Language

The action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc and passing it off as one's own; literary theft. One citation per paragraph, use APA style, cite any knowledge you didn't have before taking this course Plagiarism
A rewording of something written or spoken by someone else (different words, # of words, sent.struct. cited) Paraphrase
The scientific study of language Linguistics
observe data, make generalizations, develop hypothesis, test against more data. scientific method
A set of rules that speakers of a language follow when they speak (mental, descriptive, prescriptive). The knowledge that a speaker has that allows him/her to identify utterances in their language (vs another language). Grammar
A set of rules that a group of people came up with designed to regulate how we write (and speak). We were taught academic american english. Prescriptive Grammar
A speaker's unconscious knowledge of their language Mental Grammar
Grammars generated by linguists that reflect the mental grammars of native speakers of a language. They attempt to describe the rules we have in our minds that determine what is and isn't an acceptable utterance in our language. Descriptive Grammar
Unintentional cuing of animals by their trainers when they do "good" things. Leads to misconception that animals are understanding things like math. "The Clever Hans Effect"
A basic unit of language, every language is a complete system of signs. Sign
Pertaining to a class of words that express only relations. Languages are symbolic. Symbolic
A sign or representation that stands for its object by virtue of a resemblance or analogy to it Iconic
Interchangeability, Cultural Transmission, Arbitrariness, Discreetness, Displacement, Productivity Language (vs communication)
Both the sender and the receiver can exchange messages (Bees can't do this) Interchangeability
Can be learned vs acquired Cultural Transmission
little or no iconicity Arbitraryness
message built out of parts Discreetness
The ability to talk about things that are not present in the current context; the dimensions of time and space Displacement
The ability to produce novel (new) utterances Productivity
Forager bees can tell other bees about distance, direction and quality of food source. Cannot warn about predators or weather. Different species dance similarly but don't understand one another. Bees raised away from hive dance same as in, are understood Bee Dances
Identify themselves, defend territory, find mates, keep flock together, warn about predators, signal safety. Involves both acquisition and social transmission. Imitation of other species (&other big things). Bird Songs
Have hierarchical structures. Repetition of sounds in sequence (syntax-like). Changes year to year. Orcas have dialects that help ID pod membership Whale Songs
Parrot. Taught to recognize and vocally identify things by shape and color. Learned to use "no" "want" and "come here" context appropriately. Able to combine words without being taught Alex
Dog with 200 word vocabulary (toys). He can fast-map Rico
When a new word is associated with a new object/idea after only one repetition Fast mapping
Bonobo. Started learning lexigrams at 6 months. 348 recognized, 3000 claimed spoken. 59% accuracy. 32-65 exposures to learn. No spontaneous communication. Kanzi
Positive views of a language stem from positive views of a culture and vice versa. The reason we think some languages sound prettier than others. Social connotations hypothesis
The worldview of a culture is subtly conditioned by the structure of its language Linguistic Relativism
The worldview of a culture is directly and unalterably determined by the structure of the language. (Native Americans and expressing time time continuum, Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis) Linguistic Determinism
Hopi - time is expressed by adverbs not nouns "The men left after the tenth day" Cyclic view of time, not forward. Manifest realm, recent past and present and Unimanifest realm, future mental mythological past and anything abstract Whorf Hypothesis
Color Terminology, Grue. Subjects had to pick 1/3 color chips that was most different. Then only allowed to see 2 chips at a time. Attempt for English speakers to lose their bias. Kay and Kempton (1984)
A systematic way of speaking used by a speaker in a given context. General term for any type of language, dialect, register, or accent variation. (Supposed to be a neutral term) Language Variety
Variety used in a particular social context or situation (talking to interviewer vs siblings). Also called "speech style" Register
Regional variety. All varieties of a language are a dialect. Not bad. Dialect
Variety based on socioeconomic status Sociolect
Personal variety Idiolect
Mutual Intelligibility, Shared History, Politics Language vs Dialect
When speakers of one language variety can understand and converse with speakers of another language variety Mutual Intelligibility
The speakers of a given variety have a continuing historical relationship with the speakers of another variety Shared History
"A language is a dialect with an army" Politics
Cantonese and Mandarin can't communicate but are considered same language, Serbian and Croatian are mutually intelligible but are considered different, language continuums Problems with Mutual Intelligibility
Pronunciation (phonology), words and word-building processes (morphology), different sentence making rules (syntax), different meanings (semantics), different rules of use (pragmatics) How do Dialects vary?
A particular regional dialect influenced by phonology Accent
Standard sociolects represent the prestige varieties, usually associated with high socio-economic status. Non-standard sociolects are often but not always associated with lower class (cockney) Sociolects
Associated with standard dialect Overt Prestige
Associated with non-standard dialect, related to identity with a particular social group. Covert Prestige
Tend to be more grammatically regular and conservative than (overt) prestige varieties, yet are looked down upon. Speakers may hypercorrect to signal affiliation with prestige varieties Stigmatized Varieties (Labov)
Traditional New England whaling community in 1960s was tourist destination. Dialect variation (mostly in middle age, who cared one way or another). Speakers may not be aware of their accents, but are unintentionally manipulating their speech Martha's Vineyard (Labov)
study of physiology and production of speech sounds Articulatory Phonetics
Study of the physical properties of speech sounds (waves) Acoustic Phonetics
Study of the perception of speech sounds (hearing) Auditory Phonetics
distinct units of speech sounds. NOT LETTERS. Phones
Abstract mental units that represents sounds. Phones that distinguish among words and are indicated by //. A phone whose presence changes the meaning of a word. Abstract idea of tree-ness Phoneme
Phonetic forms that do not contrast (make a difference in meaning) Indicated by []. Phones that do not distinguish among words and are indicated by square brackets. concrete examples of the same tree in different environments Allophone
We know which phones are phonemes from pairs of words that differ only in one phone and whose meaning is different. Minimal Pairs
Whether your vocal cords are vibrating or not Voicing
Where the consonants are said Place of Articulation
How the consonants are said Manner of Articulation
voicing Phonation
height, backness frontness, rounding, tenseness Vowel features
tone, nasalization, length Phonemic features
Pitch of a vowel which changes the meaning of a word. Can be either level or contour. (high, mid, low, falling) Tone
marked with tilde over vowel Nasalization
marked with a colon after the long vowel Length
all languages have stops, most have /t/, most have more than one place of articulation, at least one fricative, at least one nasal, at least one fluid Consonant facts
Generally consists of a C and a V. All languages have CV syllables, every vowel is a nucleus, every syllable has a nucleus. Ideal syllables move from low to high sonority Syllable facts
(C)(C)(C) V (C)(C)(C)(C) [ onset ] [nucleus] [ coda ] [ rime ] Syllable structure
Vowels>glides>liquids>nasals>fricatives>stops Sonority hierarchy
node->OR R->NC count the number of syllables in each word. determine the nucleus of each syllable. maximize the onset. put all remaining consonants in coda. Syllable tree
Rules that govern what sound sequences are possible in a language. Phono-sound, tactic-order. Part of abstract phonological grammar Phonosyntactics
The study of the mental organization of a language's sound system. Biggest - syllables and words, middle - segments, smallest - features Phonology
The units of phonological structure that are larger than the segment syllables, feet and words. Syllables organized -> feet, feet are the unit of metrical stress. They consist (usually) of a stressed & unstressed syllable. Feet are then organized -> words Prosody
Hierarchical organization of sounds. Obey the sonority hierarchy. Phonological processes are sensitive to syllables. Syllables
Best before stressed foot. Ala-fuckin-bama Where does fuck go?
Sets of sounds that have one or more features in common and that behave in the same way with respect to the phonological processes in a language. Natural Class
The smallest unit of a word Morpheme
The sounds around a phoneme Environment (of a phoneme)
When two phones are mutually exclusive, or appear in different environments. They are allophones of the same phoneme. Clark kent and superman. Figure which is predictable and which is elsewhere. Complementary distribution
When two sounds appear in the same environment and don't make a difference in meaning. same phonemes. Free variation
Same environment, different meaning. Different phonemes. Contrastive Distribution
First, make a table that shows the environments where the sounds are found. Second, make observations about the environments in each column. Third, try to find a generalization that is 100% true of one column and 100% untrue of the others Solving Phonology Problems
If you have two or more allophones of the same phoneme, you have to decide which of the allophones is the most basic. This is the elsewhere form. Also known as the underlying representation. Elsewhere variant
When the distribution of a phone is predictable, you can write a rule that represents this distribution. These rules are part of mental grammar. Phoneme /X/ becomes -> allophone [Y] in the environment of/A followed by ____ B EW -> Pred /Env EW -> EW/E Phonological rules
Because phonemes are abstract, the way that we think of them and the way we actually think of them can be quite different Phonological Processes
Nasalization, Place assimilation Assimilation
Sounds become less alike "fifths" "fifs" Dissimilation
Segment insertion Epenthesis
Removing a segment "suppose" "spose" Deletion
Segment rearrangement "ask" "akse" Metathesis
The articulation of one sound overlaps with the sounds before and after it Coarticulation
First, look for minimal pairs (identical entire environments). Then look for near minimal pairs (identical immediate environments, close extended environments) Expanded notion of environment
influence each other equally Adstratum languages
superstratum languages will influence substratum languages more than substratum languages will influence superstratum languages Superstratum/Substratum languages
found in areas of low intensity language contact Lexical borrowing
requires a high intensity of language contact Structural borrowing
Occurs where there is extensive, long-term contact between superstrate and substrate languages. A shift of native speakers away from their language and to another language. Language shift
When there are no more native speakers of a language. Happens when the people who speak languages die, children stop learning the language, or languages have increasingly small spheres of use Language death
When there are very few native speakers left and they are all elderly - no one in the new generation is learning the language Endangered/Moribund language
Old native speakers can be documented. Languages can be revitalized/taught Language death reversal
Two sounds that are 'different' from each other become 'the same' cot-caught, hock-hawk, don-dawn Unconditional merger
Two 'different' sounds become 'the same' but only in a particular environment. Pin/pen merged in some places but bit/bet are still different Conditional merger
Coordinated, stepwise change in the pronunciation of sounds in at least one variety of language (chaucer to shakespeare is the great vowel shift) Chain shift
lexical indices of dialect boundaries (coke/pop, creek/brook, etc) Isoglosses
A change over time, that is complete from the perspective of the current time Dichronic Change
A change that is happening now. Synchronic Change
Within a language - to understand the grammatical history Across language - to understand the historical relationships among the languages and varieties existent at a certain point of time Reasons for studying Historical Linguistics
reconstruction, proto-languages, proto forms and cognates, comparative method Links among languages
The claim that two languages are related is actually a claim that there was a past time when they were the same Related languages
when the "mother language" is not attested, it has to be constructed or hypothesized Proto-language
Joseph Greenburg - protoworld hypothesis. Extra-linguistic evidence, DNA, anthropological record, cultural similarities. Ling evidence - cognates and correspondances Language Families
words that have the same meaning and similar phonological forms Cognates
DO NOT have the same meaning, but do have the same phonological form False cognates
historical linguists look for regular sound correspondences in cognate words in languages that might be related. Assumption 1 - regular sound changes do not occur accidentally Assumption 2- cognates are more likely to occur in 'core vocabulary' The Comparative Method
First, compile a list of cognates. Throw out possible borrowings. Second, determine correspondances Third, reconstruct a sound (total or most natural development) Fourth, check for regularity of change Historical Linguistics problems
stops become fricatives between vowels, consonants become voiceless/delete at the ends of words, fricatives become /h/, voiceless stops become /?/ Lention/Weakening
Assimilation, Dissimilation, Deletion, Epenthesis, Metathesis, backing/fronting, raising/lowering, lenition/weakening Natural Sound Changes
Celts on British isles. Celtic was super. Then Rome invaded and roman was super. 300BCE-600CE
Britons vulnerable to Pict&Scot invasions after Romans went home. Invited Germanic tribe over to help them (Angles, Saxons and Jutes) 410-449 CE
English in England. The only good Celt is a dead Celt. Very few borrowings (place names), brought over Latin borrowings. 450-850 ish
Around 600 they were converted to Catholicism and Latin became important again, lots of borrowing (pope, demon, etc) Adstratum 600 CE
Vikings fucked shit up. 790-800
Many things translated into Old English. 871-899
Norwegian king got the upper hand and ruled. Vikings married English women so borrowing happened both ways. Adstratum. borrowings of /sk/ words and words like egg, flat, gift, die, husband, ill. 1016-1042
French Invasion. superstratum - french. 1066-1266
Middle English, if someone didnt know a word they would use a french word to sound higher class. lost most of cases system became fixed SVO. Great vowel shift. 1200
English Renaissance. People starting to write. Older terms came back (astound, doom, flout, weird). Words borrowed from trade (cinnamon, lemon, ginger) 1450-1600
Borrowing (limited) since they were superstratum like celts and angles. 1600-1750
The unconscious, socially defined gender that is associated with words in a language Covert Gender
A functional morpheme present in the sentence and required by the grammar. Like with "la" and "le" Grammatical Gender
Use of universal "He" and kids testing, potential legal issues, linguistic relativism (when you put emphasis on woman's marital status, you make words to express it) Relative pitch differs culturally Effects of gender
Male norm, womens' speech viewed as less prestigious, yet women generally use more prestigious form (role models/caretakers, have played lower roles in society so taking a step up, worried about people judging them) Genderlect
number of turns taken, length of turns, who interrupts, types of words and questions, relative social positions of people. Men take the floor 2/3 of the time. The Floor/Conversational Analysis
"mmhmm" and "yeah" during a conversation. Men take it as agreement. Women take it as "I hear you/continue" Back Channeling
typically used by women to sound less aggressive. used by men to confirm information that they already know. can be used by anyone to force an answer. Tag questions
A discreet form that can be manipulated by syntax Word
Idioms "the cat's out of the bag" and clitics "je m'appelle" (and contractions), bracketing "transformational grammarian" Word problem cases
Speaker's mental dictionary, where words are permanently stored. (all caps = mental representation) Lexicon
The minimal unit of meaning. The internal units of word structure. 2 usages. 1 refers to the meaning of an underlying word-part, 2 refers to the phonological chunk representing the meaning (known as a morph) Morphemes
Varient forms of a morpheme. The distribution of allomorphs can be conditioned by phonology (walked v sneezed v handed), lexicon Allomorph
Cranberry morphemes, greek and latin morphemes (co-, -fer) Problem cases for morphemes
Words whose form and meaning can not be predicted from anything else. Simple words composed of one morpheme Monomorphemic words
words whose form and meaning can be constructed and comprehended by the application of general rules. Words composed of two or more morphemes Complex words
Can stand alone. (free-, -stand) Free morphemes
attach to another morpheme to make a word (-ing, -s, -eme) Bound morphemes
when words are built by assembling morphemes in an additive, linear fashion. Concatenative morphology
morphemes you can attach to the beginning, end, or insert in the middle of a word Affix
Most common form of concatenative morphology Affixation
The smallest basic part; can be free or bound Root
Any form that an affix attaches to. A root can also be a stem if it has morphemes attached to it. Stem (aka base)
Bound morpheme, precedes the stem, can be more than one Prefixes
Bound morpheme, follows stem, can be more than one Suffixes
Bound morpheme, appears inside the stem, can have multiple in a word (not in English though) Infixes
Bound morpheme, appears before and after stem, can have multiple (not in English) Circumfixes
doubling the whole or part of a morpheme Reduplication
THE 8 (-s, -s, -'s, -ed, -ing, -en, -er, -erst) Doesn't change part of speech or content, required by syntax, is productive, occur at margins of words Inflectional Morphemes*
lots of these (re-, -ness, -able, in-, etc.) Can change part of speech, not required by syntax, not always productive, before inflection Derivational Morphemes
Person, Number, Case (nominative, accusative), Tense (present, past) and Aspect (completeness), Directionality (toward the sea), Evidentiality (because God said so), Mood (indicative, subjunctive) Types of Inflectional Morphemes
Way of organizing nouns into groups. Animacy, Gender, Arbitrary Classification
First, compare words in target language with similar meanings and phonological shapes. Compare, contrast, look for patterns. DON'T assume morphemes are syllables. DON'T only look for things that exist in English Morphology problem tips (general)
Step 1, Isolate and Compare partially similar forms. Step 2, if one phonetic form has two distinct meanings, classify it as two different morphemes. How to do Morphology*
New words (added to languages all the time). Neologisms
Taking words from other languages and putting them in our language (whiskey, galore, hooligan) Borrowing
Creation of new words out of new combinations of syllables, usually for a commercial purpose. (Kodak, teflon, viagra) Word Coinage
When the word coinage process is so effective that the product name becomes the generic term. (Kleenex, Q-tip, Saran wrap) Generification
When a name is converted into a regular noun. (sandwich) Eponyms
Shortens a polysyllabic word by deleting one or more syllables. (taxi cab, phys-ed, condo, burger) Clipping
Mixes together non-morphemic parts of two already existing words. (brunch, brinner, puggle) Blends
Removes a real or supposed affix from an existing word. (enthuse, edit, burgle) Backformation
The initial letters of some or all of the words in a phrase are pronounced as a word (SCUBA, RADAR, LASER) Acronyms
When you say the first letters of a series of words to abbreviate them. (FBI, CEO) Initialism
No prefix or suffix is added, rather an already existing word is assigned to a new syntactic category (hand, father, friend, butter) Conversion
The combination of two or more existing words to create a new word. N+N = firetruck A+N = bluebird, V+N = jumpsuit, P+N = afterthought, N+V = spoonfed, A+V = whitewash, P+V = overlook, V+V = dropkick, N+A = nationwide, A+A = redhot, P+A = overgrown Compounding
Usually determined by the rightmost morpheme in English. Determines lexical category. Head usually stressed.Tense and plurals can't be added to the head. Compounding heads
Larger compounds can be made from smaller ones Recursive
denotes a subtype of the concept denoted by its head (dog food, bath towel, policemen) Endocentric compounds
meaning of the compound does not follow from the meaning of the parts (turncoat, redneck, walkmans) Exocentric compounds
Affixes are hierarchically organized in complex words. Can be ambiguity with stuff like "unlockable" Affixes and hierarchical structure
Instead of clear affixes being added to specific parts of the word, the words themselves will change to show the change in meaning caused by the morpheme. Inflectional and derivational morphemes are integrated into the root instead of added on the ends. Non-concatenative morphology
Complete replacement of the root. (I am, I was, she is, they are) Suppletion
phonological changes in the root that cause a grammatical change (no english examples, but like if gur meant stone and gu:r means stones) Internal change
Past tense and past participle signaled by vowel change (ring, rang, rung) Ablaut
Plural change is signaled by change in vowel (man men, feet foot, goose geese) Umlaut
There is a consonantal root, and inflection is indicated by the vowels and pattern of consonants and vowels Templatic Morphology
Did a study on what we actually hear (sentences, sounds, words). Found that words are easier to listen for than sounds. But it's hard to understand words unless they're in sentences. But it's hard to get the sentence if it's not connected to meaning. George Miller
Study of how words combine with one another to form phrases, how phrases combine to form grammatical sentences Syntax
To explain why languages work the way they do Goal of Linguistic theory
All languages have highly similar syntactic structures, even though they look different on the surface. Structure is formal and independent of meaning. Formalism/Minimalism
Claim that structure is more closely related to meaning Functionalism
The meaning of a complex expression is determined by the meaning of its parts and their hierarchal relationship to one another. We need to know the meaning of the parts (morphology and semantics) and the relationship between the parts Principle of compositionality
The building blocks of sentences/syntactic categories. Nouns, Verbs, Prepositions, Adjectives, Adverbs, etc Parts of speech
(person, place or thing) Noun
(action, state of being) Verb
(expresses quality, quantity or extent) Adjective
(expresses manner, quality, place, time, degree, number, cause, opposition, affirmation or denial) Adverb
(expresses location or origin) Preposition
Multiple parts of speech, cross linguistic problems, words->nonwords Problems with semantic definitions of POS
Determine POS of a word by the affixes attached to it and by syntactic context. Distributional (looking for the context) makes definition specific Distributional Definitions
Affixes which attach to a word Morphological Distribution
Position relative to nearby words Syntactic Distribution
After determiners, adjectives, prepositions. Subject or direct object of sentence. Negated by no. Noun (distributional)
Follows auxiliaries, modals, infinitive marker "to." Negated with not. Can sometimes follow subjects and adverbs such as often and frequently. Verbs (distributional)
Between determiners and nouns. Can follow am/is/are/was/were/be/been/being (so can verbs). Can be modified with "very" (so can adverbs). Adjectives (distributional)
Can't appear between a determiner and a noun or after "is" and its variants. Usually at beginning/end of a sentence or after clause. Can be modified with "very" Adverbs (distributional)
Allow new words, express content (N, Adj, V, Adv) Open POS
Usually open class (except some pronouns) Doesn't allow neologisms, expresses function (prepositions, conjunctions, modals, auxiliaries, determiners/articles, pronouns, etc) Closed POS
Expresses the contentful/referential part of the meaning. What you would send in a telegraph Lexical POS
Closed class, expresses grammatical information in the sentence. glue that holds the sentence together Functional POS
The representation of the hierarchical structure of sentences by grouping words together into phrases Phrase structure
Sentences are made up of words and phrases. To draw a tree you need to understand how parts relate to one another using phrase structure rules Sentence structure
A sentence Tense Phrase (TP)
Phrase that has a noun as its head Noun Phrase (NP)
Phrase that has a verb as its head Verb Phrase (VP)
Phrase that has a preposition as its head Prepositional Phrase (PP)
A clause Complementizer Phrase (CompP)
Functional word or morpheme that gives information about the location or direction of the event described by the verb. In English, we only have prepositions, but there are postpositions in other languages. Modify NP Adposition
&/or. Tells us we want to combine two phrases together. They must be of the same type. Coordination (Coord)
TP -> TP N VP TP -> NP VP NP -> (Det) (Adj+) N (PP+) VP -> (Adv+) VP (Adv+) VP -> V (NP) (NP) VP -> V CompP VP -> V PP PP -> P NP CompP -> Comp TP XP -> XP Coord XP Phrase Structure Rules (How to draw trees)*
Having heard the sentence before, meaningfulness or truth Grammaticality is NOT based on
Inherently in the meanings of verbs can be a requirement that they co-occur (or not) with other elements in a sentence Argument structure
Needs only a subject, single-argument verbs. (I laughed) Intransitive verbs
2-argument verb, requires two NPs, a subject and an object. (I threw the ball) Transitive verbs
3-argument verbs, need a subject, an object and a location. (I put the book on the floor. Ditransitive verbs
Easy- SVO (English), SOV (Turkish, Japanese), VOS (Malagasy), OVS (Hixkaryana-rare) Hard - VSO (Irish, Mayan), OSV (not attested, maybe Yiddish "Him I don't like" maybe Yoda) Free word order Logically possible word orders
Can have the same meanings even though the linear order and structure are different. Sentences with the same linear order can also have different meanings. Related sentences
Meaning of a complex expression is determined by the meaning of its parts and their hierarchal relationship to one another Compositionality*
Multiple possible interpretations of a sentence due to the fact that certain words have more than one meaning Lexical Ambiguity
The sentence is ambiguous due to the stick of the tree. Structural Ambiguity
A group of words (or a single word) that functions as a unit. Constituent
Can you ask questions about it (Who, what, how)? Can it stand alone? Can it be moved (the tall man made a very large sign/a very large sign was made by the tall man)? Can it be replaced by a single word (NP-pronoun, VP-do so, PP-there)? Constituency tests
Looks at contributions of the grammar to language. The focus is on the literal interpretation of words and sentences Semantics
Looks at the contributions of the context and social situation of the language. The focus is on the communicative intent of the speaker Pragmatics
The object or action in the real world that the word picks out. The extension is the set of items that could possibly be the denotation (cat). Actual thing out in the physical world. Denotation
The mental concept that is associated with the word; the possible things that a word or phrase could describe. Our mental definition of a thing. You can have a sense of unicorns but not a denotation. Sense
Doer, initiator of the action Semantic roles - Agent
Done about/around; object or individual moved by the action. Theme - no change of state, just being moved Patient - change of state (ice melted) Experiencer - aware of action but does not control it Semantic roles - Theme/Patient/Experiencer
The action is done here Semantic roles - Location
Done with this, secondary cause of event Semantic roles - Instrument
Done in this direction, entity toward which the event is directed Semantic roles - Goal
Done from this, entity from which something is moved by the event, or from which the event originates Semantic roles - Source
Meaning in context Pragmatics
Something you commit to in a sentence. Entailment
Something that you don't explicitly say in a sentence but is implied Implicature
How you can tell whether something is an entailment or an implicature. If you deny something that you say in the sentence then you get a contradiction and its an entailment Deniability test
Very common, used to be polite and avoid repetitions. "Do you want to get dinner" "I just ate" Low stakes Indirect speech act
Rules that we expect people to follow and that we follow ourselves under normal circumstances Cooperative principle
Whatever you say should apply to the situation. Listeners try to accommodate and make things relevant. Grice's maxims - Relevance
Don’t say more than you have evidence for “Is it raining?” “I’ve seen a lot of wet umbrellas” Grice's maxims - Quality
Be as informative as required by the situation. “where are you from?” cocktail party vs legal document Grice's maxims - Quantity
Be clear and concise. Don’t be Polonius. Grice's maxims - Manner
Defying maxims in an obvious way. Relevance - recommendation letter. Quality - sarcasm. Manner - music review Flout
Is the present king of France bald? -there is no king of France Presupposition failure
sentence type Speech acts (direct and indirect)
• offering new information • declarative - it’s raining – direct • interrogative – isn’t her hat nice? – indirect • imperative – know that it’s raining - indirect Assertions
• requesting information • interrogative - is it raining? – direct • declarative – it’s raining? – indirect • imperative – tell me if it’s raining - indirect Questions
• inviting an action • imperative – take out the garbage – direct • declarative – It’s cold in here – indirect • interrogative – isn’t that music a little loud? – indirect Commands
Words you are not supposed to say for fear of invoking their power. The power of words - all cultures have words which can not be uttered. Taboo
Powerful animals, Powerful beings, death Common cross-linguistic taboos
sexuality and bodily function European taboos
Sometimes, names become taboo upon that persons death Jewish- have to name the next in line an A name if an A name just died. Aborigine- can't say name or things rhyming with name. Ute - name will wake them up. Navajo- name will invite trouble from dead Name taboos
Bastard, Zounds, Jeepers, Bloody, God and other variations, ass, gay Taboos through time
George Carlin radio broadcast considered indecent, was on at 2 in the afternoon. Those 7 don't have other meanings 7 dirty words you can't say on tv
The substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant Euphemisms
Racial Slurs and terms for mentally disabled come from fear of what? Cursing actually helps alleviate pain, associated with mental diseases such as tourettes, epilepsy, some dementias, klazomania (compulsive shouting). Fuck is the only english infix Offensive words
What we fear shows up as taboos. Who is it okay for to curse? When is it okay to curse? Taboo and linguistic relativism
Face to face conversation, take on baby perspectives in convo, accept improper utterances, masks incompetence, widely varying first words White American baby talk
Don't talk to babies but hold them all the time, takes on baby perspectives in convo but uses adult voice, child mistakes are ignored, first words always mother or breast Kaluli, Papa New Guinea
Birth - 5 m they're called baby-thing-thing and cared for by lots of people, language directed at baby is soft and singsong, children away from adults, crawling=willful, communication to child imperative, expected to accommodate, first word expletive Western Samoa
Children start with a blank slate and respond to stimuli. Response to rewards/punishment (negated by mommy me loves you and Mother, I went potty in my bed). Relies on child hearing everything before they say it (negated by I goed, I wented) Behaviorism (Skinner)
Everyone has a language acquisition device in their brain Inateness
Language skill ≠ cognitive development How children do not learn language
Once you get past a certain age (12 or so) you can't learn language. Evidence - Wild Boy of Avignon, Genie, Late signers Critical period hypothesis
Calculating statistical probabilities with which certain syllables follow others (babies recognized syllables) Statistical learning. Or rule learning, they recognize patterns. How children might learn language
vegetative noises Newborn (0-2 months)
cooing and laughter 2-4 months
vocal play - long drawn out sounds but not adult like 4-6 months
canonical babbling "mamamamamamama" 6-9 months
variegated babbling (sounds like english conversation), proto-words 9-12 months
First words. At 12 months the baby knows ~50-100 but may only produce 5-10. After the first few words it's ~8-11 words a month 10-15 months
~50 words or more, start of word spurt where children learn ~22-37 words/month 18 months
What is/isn't a word? Words not isolated very often. Mondegreens happen. Segmentation problem
L1-the language you learn from birth on L2-language you learned later L3-language you learned after L2 L1, L2, L3
learning 2 languages from birth. Might be hard initially for children to distinguish between the two, but once they get it, they do better in school. Simultaneous Bilingualism
learning a second language a significant amount of time after the L1 has taken place Sequential Bilingualism
a system of mental representations influenced by both a first and second language that has features of each. Results in transfer errors Interlanguage grammar
Not quite, personality factors a lot more. Shy children will not speak L2 as well. If they don't know their L1 that well when they start learning the L2, they could be better at the L2. Is L1 acquisition the same as L2 learning?
Simultaneous bilinguals tend to be more balanced that sequential bilinguals, but admittedly there tend to be different spheres of use Language dominance
The study of how the mind produces and processes language. Looks at parsing and reveals that speech production processes are highly automatic Psycholinguistsics
Tentententententententententen what are aluminum cans made out of? Both phonological and lexical Priming
separating the speech stream into identifiable units and then extracting the meaning of those units. Buckaneer-pirate. Buck an ear-price of corn. Mondegreens Parsing
A spoken sentence often contains words not intended to be heard. Your ease in reading a series of words is somehow influenced by spaces marking off each of the boundaries. If you can use empty space in an artfully misleading ways, it is even harder Parsing issues
Pre-linguistic (picture of windmill). Search for describing words (mental representations). Create a sentence with structure but not phonological form. Convert sentence to sounds (phonemes and rules). Say sentence. Listener must undo this process Basic model of conversation
Example of how automatic language processing is and how little it is subject to our control. Colors/words. Stroop
Sound/mouth movement McGurk
Created by: haleyBUGoxox