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key terms

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Accessibility   defined in terms of relative location: opportunity for contact or interaction from a given point or location in relation to other locations.  
Capitalism   a form of economic and social organization characterized by the profit motive & the control of the means of production, distribution, & the exchange of goods by private ownership.  
Cognitive distance   the distance that people perceive to exist in a given situation.  
Cognitive image   psychological representations of locations that are made up from people's individual ideas and impressions of these locations.  
Cognitive space   space defined and measured in terms of the nature and degree of people's values, feelings, beliefs, & perceptions about locations, districts & regions.  
Distance-decay function   rate at which a particular activity or process diminishes with increasing distance.  
Economies of scale   cost advantages to manufacturers that accrue from high-volume production, since the average cost of production falls with increasing output.  
Formal region   groups of areal units that have a high degree of homogeneity in terms of particular distinguishing features.  
Friction of distance   the deterrent or inhibiting effect of distance on human activity.  
Functional regions   regions with some variability in certain attributes but with an overall coherence to the structure and dynamics of economic, political, & social organization.  
Geodemographic research   uses census data and commercial data (such as sales data & property records)about the populations of small districts in creating profiles of those populations for market research.  
Geographical imagination   the capacity to understand changing patterns, changing processes, & changing relationships among people, places, & regions.  
Geographic information systems (GIS)   an organized collection of computer hardware, software, & geographic data that is designed to capture, store, update, manipulate, & display geographically referenced information.  
Global positioning system (GPS)   system of satellites that orbit the Earth on precisely predictable paths, broadcasting highly accurate time and locational information.  
Globalization   the increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common process of economic, environmental, political, & cultural change.  
Human geography   study of the spatial organization of human activity & of people’s relationships with their environments.  
Identity   the sense that people make of themselves through their subjective feelings based on their everyday experiences & wider social relations.  
Infrastructure (or fixed social capital)   the underlying framework of services & amenities needed to facilitate productive activity  
Latitude   the angular distance of a point on Earth’s surface, measured north or south from the equator, which is 0 degrees.  
Longitude   the angular distance of a point on Earth’s surface, measured east or west from the prime meridian [passes through Greenwich, England.  
Neo-liberal policies   economic policies that are predicated on a minimalist role for the state, assuming the desirability of free markers as the ideal condition not only for economic organization but also for political and social life.  
Physical geography   a sub-area that studies the Earth’s natural processes & their outcomes.  
Region   larger-sized territory that encompasses many places, all or most of which share similar attributes in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere.  
Regional geography   study of the ways in which unique combinations of environmental & human factors produce territories with distinctive landscapes & cultural attributes.  
Remote sensing   collection of info about parts of the Earth’s surface by means of aerial photography or satellite imagery designed to record data on visible, infrared, & microwave sensor systems.  
Sense of place   feelings evoked among people as a result of the experiences & memories that they associate with a place, & to the symbolism that they attach to it.  
Site   the physical attributes of a location ---- its terrain, its solid, vegetation, & water sources, for example.  
Situation   the location of a place relative to other places & human activities.  
Social relations    
Spatial analysis   the study of geographic phenomena in terms of their arrangement as points, lines, areas or surfaces on a map.  
Spatial diffusion   the way that things spread through space and over time.  
Spatial interaction   the movement and flows involving human activity.  
Supernational organization   the collections of individual states with a common goal that may be economic &/or political in nature; such organizations diminish, to some extent, individual stare sovereignty in favor of the group interest of the membership.  
Time- space convergence   the rate at which places move closer together in travel or communication time or costs.  
Topological space   the connections between, or connectivity of, particular points in space.  
Expansion diffusion    
Hierarchical diffusion    


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