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What are the 4 phases of the bacterial growth curve and what goes on during each phase?
Lag: bacteria assessing the nutrients in the medium, no bacterial growthLog: bacteria growing logarithmicallystationary: rate of growth and death equal death/decline: reduced nutrients and overwhelming waste products lead to death of bacteria
What is the function of an enzyme?
Lowers (decreases) Ea (Activation Energy) so the chemical reaction can readily take place.
What is the difference between a chemotroph and phototroph?
Chemotrophs use preformed organic compounds (e.g. sugar, starch) as an energy source (e.g. animals)Phototrophs use sunlight as an energy source (e.g. plants)
What is the difference between a heterotroph and autotroph?
A hetertroph uses preformed organic compounds (e.g. sugar, fats, proteins) as a carbon source (e.g. animals)Autotrophs use carbon dioxide (inorganic carbon) as a carbon source (e.g. plants)
The breakdown of complex organic compounds into simpler ones, e.g. when cells break sugars down into CO2 and H2O
The building of complex organic molecules from simpler ones, e.g. the formation of proteins from amino acids, nucleic acids from nucleotides
the sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism.
What are the two types of fermentation reactions that were discussed in class?
1 - Lactice Acid Fermentation
What is the role of catalase and superoxide dismutase regarding the oxygen requirements of a bacterial organism?
Catalase neutralizes the hydrogen peroxide by breaking it down to water and oxygen gas. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) neutralizes superoxide. Therefore any organism which metabolizes oxygen must contain these.
How is an acidophile different from acid tolerant bacteria?
An acidophile requires an acid-rich environment in order to grow, whereas an acid tolerant bacteria doesn’t require any acidity but can tolerate it by producing an enzyme to help neutralize it.
What is an oxidation reaction?
A reaction in which an atom or molecule loses electrons.
What is a reduction reaction?
A reaction in which an atom or molecule gains electrons.