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Biology ch 13

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Father of Genetics   Gregor Mendel  
what did gregor mendel do   he studied inheritance patterns in pea plants,  
heredity   passing of traits from parent to offspring  
alleles   two forms of a gene that are represented by capital or lower case letters  
dominant   stornger of the two alleles expessed in the hybirid, R  
recessive   gene that is masked by the domimant, r  
genotype   gene combination for a trait (RR,Rr,rr)  
pheontype   the physical feature resulting from a geontype (red or white)  
homozygous genotype   gene combination involving the same kind of genes, aka pure  
heterozygous genotype   gene combination of one dominant and one ressive allele aka hybrid  
punnett squares   used to determine the probability of having a certian type of offspring when given the alleles of the parents  
momohybrid cross   cross involving a single trait  
P1   the parental generation in a breeding experiment  
F1   the first generation offspring in a breeding experiment  
F2   the second generation offspring in a breeding experiment  
Law of Dominance   some genes of a pair of genes can dominate over the other gene, such that the individual appears to only have one of the allelse  
Law of Segreation   individuals have two genes for each trait, one from the mother and one from the father during sperm and egg formation these two genes separate so that each spder or egg has only one gene  
Law of Independent Assortment   during reproduction, the genes to different traits sort independently of each other in the egg and sperm  
incomplete dominace   when the heterozygote is intermediate to the homozygotes. Cross a red snapdragon with a white snapdragon and the offspring are pink.  
codominance   where both alleles are expressed. EX: A blood crossed with B blood creates AB blood  
Espistasis   when one gene inteferes with an allele to another gens.  
incomplete dominance   the heterozygous condition resluts in an intemediate third blended phenotype  
codominance   both alleles of a gene are expressed equally  
multiple alleles   when more than two different alleles exist for the same trait  
Rh factor   an inherited trait taht refers to a specific protien found on the surface of red blood cells. if you blood has the protien then your positive and if you don't have it then youre negative  
multifactorial traits   determined by interaction between a gene or gens and the environment  
polygenic traits   the inheritrance patter is controled by two or more genes each with two alleles  
linked genes   genes that are located on the same chrosome, and are often inherited togehter  
universal recipent of blood   AB+  
universal donor of blood   O-  
sex-linked traits   a gen found only on the x chrosome and not the y  
barr body   the inactive x chrosome of mamals  
agglutination   when blood antigens are mixed with corresponding antibodies  
pedigree   a graph or chart on studing a genetic syndrome  
inheritance of mitochondrial DNA   only inherited by moms egg, passes it to all of their offspring  


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Created by: ella27