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Vocabulary words

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Absorption   the process or action by which one thing absorbs or is absorbed by another  
Adverse effect   an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery  
Agonist   a substance that initiates a physiological response when combined with a receptor  
Antagonist   a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens agonist-mediated responses rather than provoking a biological response itself upon binding to a receptor  
Bioavailability   the proportion of a drug or other substance that enters the circulation when introduced into the body and so is able to have an active effect  
Biotechnology   the exploitation of biological processes for industrial and other purposes, especially the genetic manipulation of microorganisms for the production of antibiotics, hormones, etc.  
Biotransformation   the alteration of a substance, such as a drug, within the body  
Bolus   a single dose of a drug or other medicinal preparation given all at once  
Contraindication   (of a condition or circumstance) suggest or indicate that (a particular technique or drug) should not be used in the case in question  
Distribution   the action of sharing something out among a number of recipients  
Duration   the time during which something continues  
Emulsion   a fine dispersion of minute droplets of one liquid in another in which it is not soluble or miscible  
Enteral   (chiefly of nutrition) involving or passing through the intestine, either naturally via the mouth and esophagus, or through an artificial opening  
Excretion   (in living organisms and cells) the process of eliminating or expelling waste matter.  
Idiosyncratic effect   unpredictable adverse drug reactions that do not occur in most patients but when they do occur they can be life-threatening  
Indication   a valid reason to use a certain test, medication, procedure, or surgery  
Local effect   the impact of a therapeutic agent on specific tissues rather than on the whole body, esp. on those tissues where the agent is absorbed, metabolized, or most chemically active  
Onset   the first appearance of the signs or symptoms of an illness  
Parenteral   Not delivered via the intestinal tract. For example, parenteral nutrition is feeding that is delivered intravenously  
Pharmacodynamics   the branch of pharmacology concerned with the effects of drugs and the mechanism of their action  
Pharmacokinetics   the branch of pharmacology concerned with the movement of drugs within the body  
Plasma protein binding   A drug's efficiency may be affected by the degree to which it binds to the proteins within blood plasma. The less bound a drug is, the more efficiently it can traverse cell membranes or diffuse. Common blood proteins that drugs bind to are human serum alb  
Reconstituted   ---The restitution or return to an original state of a substance, or combination of parts to make a whole ---In the case of a lower organism, the restoration of a part of the body by regeneration  
Side effect   a result of drug or other therapy in addition to or in extension of the desired therapeutic effect; usually but not necessarily, connoting an undesirable effect  
Solubility   the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent  
Solution   a liquid mixture in which the minor component (the solute) is uniformly distributed within the major component (the solvent)  
Suspension   1a: the state of a substance when its particles are mixed with but undissolved in a fluid or solidb: a substance in this state—see oral suspension 2: a system consisting of a solid dispersed in a solid, liquid, or gas usually in particles of larger than  
Synergist   "together with" or "united." When synergistic parts work together, they accomplish more than they could alone. Synergetic is often used to describe the effect of drugs working together — where one drug increases the other's effectiveness  
Systemic effect   In medicine, systemic means affecting the whole body, or at least multiple organ systems. It is in contrast with topical or local. Systemic administration, a route of administration of medication so that the entire body is affected  
Topical   relating or applied directly to a part of the body  
Controlled substances   a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession, or use is regulated by a government, such as illicitly used drugs or prescription medications that are designated a Controlled Drug  
Narcotics   a drug that relieves pain and induces drowsiness, stupor, or insensibility  
DEA   Lead agency for domestic enforcement of federal drug laws, and for coordinating and pursuing U.S. drug investigations abroad  
FDA   Food and Drug Administration: a federal agency responsible for monitoring trading and safety standards in the food and drug industries  
The Joint Commission   The Joint Commission is a United States-based nonprofit tax-exempt 501(c) organization that accredits more than 21,000 health care organizations and programs in the United States  
OTC   Over the counter  
PDR   Physician's Desk Reference- a reference book published yearly that contains drug monographs and an illustrated section for drug identification  
USP-NF   United States Pharmacopeia–National Formulary- a book of public pharmacopeial standards for chemical and biological drug substances, dosage forms, compounded preparations, excipients, medical devices, and dietary supplements  


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