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Questions and answers

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Name two differences between continental plates and oceanic plates   The oceanic plate is thinner yet denser than the continental plate The oceanic plate is made of basalt and the continental plate is made of granitic rocks, such as quartz and feldspar  
Name the type of plate margin where two plates are moving towards each other   Collision/Destructive/Convergent  
What is an oceanic trench?   At a constructive plate boundary where two oceanic plates move apart, the gap is called an oceanic trench. They are deepest parts of the ocean floor.  
Name the type of plate margin where two plates are moving sideways against each other   Conservative  
How are fold mountains formed?   Fold mountains form along both destructive and collision plate boundaries.They form when two continental plates collide and crumple into a fold mountain range.  
Give one way that humans use fold mountain areas   Winter sports such as skiing in resorts  
Describe how farmers have adapted to the steep slopes in fold mountain areas   Because the slopes are so steep, the farmers have cut out terraces into the slope to create flat land that is suitable for growing crops  
Name one range of fold mountains   The alps  
Describe three ways humans use the fold mountain area   Winter sports such as skiing in resorts such as Chamonix Climbing and hiking in the summer months Hydroelectric power (HEP)  
Describe how people have adapted to the conditions of the fold mountain area   Farmers introduce vineyards or providing camp-sites for tourists to help boost their income.  
What's magma called when it erupts onto the surface?   Lava  
Which type of volcano is made up of layers of ash and lava? Name an example   Composite cone - Montserrat  
Which type of volcano is formed when the lava is runny? Name an example   Shield Volcano - Mouna Loa  
Give three things that scientists do to try and predict a volcanic eruption.   Seismometers are used to detect earthquakes. Thermal imaging techniques and satellite cameras can be used to detect heat around a volcano. Gas samples may be taken and chemical sensors used to measure sulfur levels.  
Name a volcanic eruption and state when and where it happened   Chances Peak, Soufriere Hills, Montserrat - 1997  
Describe three negative primary impacts of the eruption   The island had to be evacuated and out of the few who stayed, 19 died Many homes, the hospital, the airport and roads were destroyed More than half the island became uninhabitable  
Describe three negative secondary impacts of the eruption   People who stayed suffered very harsh conditions and medical conditions like silicosis were reported Montserrat's economy was devastated as tourism came to a halt Floods as valleys were blocked by ash  
Give three positive impacts of the eruption   New roads and a new airport built A volcanic observatory has been built to monitor the volcano Services in the north of the island have been expanded as Little Bay is developed as the new capital  
Give two immediate responses   The island was evacuated Many people left the island completely which meant the population had fallen from 12,000 to 3,500  
What were two of the long term responses?   Many young people left the island forever, which has resulted in an ageing population. This means less agricultural work can be done so the economy has been damaged.  
Where do super-volcanoes form?   Supervolcanoes occur above a hotspot (magma in mantle rises to crust but is unable to break through the crust) pressure builds up in large, growing magma pool until the crust is unable to contain the pressure  
Give one way that a super-volcanic eruption is different from a volcanic eruption   It erupts over x1000km3 more material than a normal volcano  
Give one predicted effect of a super-volcanic eruption   Global cooling that could lead to an ice age  
What causes earthquakes?   Earthquakes are cause by the sudden release of energy when the friction between two plates is suddenly overcome  
What's the point in the Earth where an earthquake starts?   Focus  
What's the point on the surface of the earth above where an earthquake starts?   Epicentre  
What does the Richter scale measure?   It measures the magnitude of an earthquake so that you can compare their sizes  
Give an example of an earthquake in a rich part of the world   San Francisco, Loma Prieta  
Describe two effects of the earthquake and two responses to it   67 dead, 3000+ injured, 12,000 displaced - temporary shelter supplied for those in need. Gas and water mains were burst, causing fires with not enough water to put them out - fire services had to pump water out of the bay to put them out.  
What causes a tsunami?   powerful undersea earthquakes are responsible for most tsunamis  
Give an example of a tsunami   2004 boxing-day tsunami  
Describe two effects of the tsunami   A quarter of a million people died, two million people were made homeless Thirteen countries were affected, the worst being Indonesia which was hit first  


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