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Chapter 01

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.
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Term
Definition
physiology   the study of normal body function  
pathophysiology   the study of abnormal body processes or disease  
pharmaceutics   the study of how drugs are introduced to the body  
pharmacokinetics   the study of how drugs are absorbed into the bloodstream (absorption), circulated to tissues throughout the body (distribution), inactivated (metabolized), and eliminated from the bloodstream over time (metabolism and excretion)  
pharmacodynamics   the study of drugs and their receptors on the molecular level  
pharmacotherapeutics   the study of how drugs are used in clinical practice for individual patients  
learning styles inventory   a tool that determines how you prefer to receive information, understand it, and commit it to memory (gives insight into how your brain works)  
learning style   an individuals preferred method of learning  
Pharmacists’ Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS)   a learning styles tool that Zubin Austin adapted in 2003 from Kolb’s theory of learning  
Phase I clinical trial   research study where drugs are first tested in healthy human subjects  
generic drug name   the name given to a drug when its patent is approved, assigned prior phase I clinical trials (before assigning a brand name); usually the drug’s name is somehow similar to others in the same class which exert the same activity  
Phase II clinical trial   research study where drugs are first tested in small groups of human subjects with the disease or condition that the drug is intended to treat  
Phase III clinical trial   research study where drugs are tested in large groups of human subjects with the disease or condition that the drug is intended to treat  
brand name   the name given to a drug after phase III clinical trials, when the drug enters the market; name for which the manufacturer receives copyright/trademark rights and markets a drug  
Phase IV clinical trial   postmarketing research studies for drugs to delineate additional information including its risks, benefits, and optimal use  
generic substitution   prescriptions that are written in brand names are often egally filled in the pharmacy with generic products  
major drug class   drugs grouped according to their mechanism of action  
therapeutic class   individual drug classes lumped together according to their therapeutic use (for a specific condition/disease or on a particular body system)  
“look-alike” drug name   generic or brand drug name that look similar to one another and could possibly cause errors with product confusion  
“sound-alike” drug name   generic or brand drug name that sound similar to one another and could possibly cause errors with product confusion  
legend drug   medication available only by prescription (see also prescription drug)  
prescription drug   medication available only by prescription (see also legend drug)  
over-the-counter (OTC) medication   medicatios that can be bought and used without a prescription  
controlled substance   medicatios that has potential for abuse and dependence  
Schedule I substance   substances with no legitamate medical use that are illegal or only available for research or experimental purposes  
Schedule II–V substances   substances with legitimate medical use but that have potential for dependence and abuse; can be legally dispensed with restrictions on numbers of refills and quantities  
precursor   any substance that is transformed into another substance  
pregnancy categorization   categorization system developed to help assess risk to the developing fetus of drugs taken when a woman is pregnant  
teratogenic   drugs that can cause birth defects or malformations in a developing fetus  
Western medicine   this type of medicine relies on the scientific method, whereby truth is determined only through observation and controlled experimentation; often called traditional medicine  
Eastern medicine   an older type of medicine that uses many herbs and alternative therapies and recognizes a person’s spiritual being and balance  
dietary and nutritional supplements   vitamins and herbal products regulated as food, not as drugs  
homeopathy   an alternative medicine method that treats an ailment with a substance, usually an herb, that causes similar symptoms as the ailment itself  
acupuncture   the insertion of needles at specific points on the body to unblock energy channels  
acupressure   the application of pressure at specific points on the body to enhance energy flow  
chiropractic therapy   the use of nondrug modalities such as manipulation to achieve better body alignment and health  
ayurveda   a form of East Indian medicine that recognizes five elements (earth, wind, water, fire, ether) and involves spiritual and whole-body well-being; employs changes in diet and lifestyle  
biofeedback   the use of mental exercise and relaxation, to slow the heartbeat, lower blood pressure, and reduce stomach problems  
prescribing terms and pharmacy abbreviations   shortened forms of medical terms and drugs  
medication error   an event in which a patient is harmed (or potentially harmed) by a medication in some way that could have been prevented  
Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)   a nonprofit organization educating the healthcare community and consumers about safe medication practices  
dangerous abbreviation   a set of medical abbreviations that are easily misread for a variety of reasons (see also error-prone abbreviations)  
dosage form   formulation by which a drug is delivered to the body  
systemic effect   when a drug must enter the bloodstream to reach its site of action  
local effect   the drug effect seen when administered directly to the site of action (without first traveling through the bloodstream)  
route of administration   refers to where in or on the body a drug is administered  
oral   administering a drug by mouth (see also peroral)  
peroral (PO)   administering a drug by mouth (see also oral)  
tablet   the solid dosage form produced by compression and containing one or more active and inactive ingredients  
capsule   the dosage form containing powder, liquid, or granules in a gelatin covering  
liquid form   a fluid dosage form (usually aqueous) that is used to administer drug therapy either given internally or applied externally  
syrup   an aqueous solution thickened with a large amount of sugar (generally sucrose) or a sugar substitute such as sorbitol or propylene glycol  
orally disintegrating tablet (ODT)   tablets that dissolve quickly on the tongue and are absorbed directly in the mouth  
sublingual   route of administration where the drug is placed under the tongue and it dissolves quickly; drug is absorbed directly in the mouth  
buccal   route of administration where the drug is placed in the cheek and dissolves quickly; drug is absorbed directly in the mouth  
solution   liquid containing dissolved substances  
suspension   liquid containing with particulate matter  
parenteral   route of administration where drug is injected  
intramuscular (IM)   route of administration where drug is injected directly in a muscle  
deltoid   upper arm muscle commonly used for drug administration  
gluteus medius   buttocks muscle commonly used for drug administration  
intravenous (IV)   route of administration where drug is injected directly in a vein  
continuous infusion   a small catheter (plastic tube) is inserted into a vein and left in place while IV fluid containing a drug runs through it into the blood  
peripheral IV line   an IV inserted into a vein in the arm, wrist, or hand and is used when small amounts of fluid need to be given or the time over which the fluid will infuse is a few days or less  
central IV line   an IV inserted into one of the larger veins in the upper chest area near the clavicle and is used when large volumes of fluid must be given, many repeated infusions will be needed, or the time over which the infusion is needed is longer than a few days  
subcutaneous (SQ or SC)   route of administration where drug is injected into the fatty tissue under the dermal layer of the skin and above the muscular tissue  
intrathecal (IT)   route of administration where drug is injected into the spinal column between vertebrae in the back  
epidural injection (EI)   injectios using a small catheter to deliver drug directly into the spinal column over time  
intradermal (ID)   route of administration where drug is injected just underneath the top layer of skin (epidermis)  
tuberculosis (TB) skin test (PPD)   a test administered to determine if an individual has developed an immune response to the bacteria that causes tuberculosis, a disease of the lungs and other body tissues and organs  
rectal   a drug administration route where drug is inserted into the rectum and allowed to melt or dissolve in place  
transdermal   route of administration where a drug delivery system is applied to the skin, so that the drug is slowly absorbed through the skin over time  
implant   the insertion of drugs just below the skin to release drug slowly over time (months to years).  
topical   a route of administration used with the intention that the drug will not be systemically absorbed; usually administered to the skin, lung tissue, eyes, and vagina  
dermal   route of administration where drug is applied topically to the skin  
inhalation   route of administration where drug is delivered into the lungs by breathing it in through the mouth  
intranasal   route of administration where drug is sprayed into the nose  
ophthalmic   route of administration where drug is delivered topically to the eye  
otic   route of administration where drug is delivered into the external ear canal  
vaginal   route of administration where drug is delivered by inserting and applying medication into the vagina  
Chinese Medicine   a type of medicine practice originating in China that uses Eastern medical philosophies of holistic health  
“five rights” of drug administration   to ensure correct drug administration a technician should verify that it is the right patient, the right drug, the right strength, the right time, and the right route  
Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)   a law enforcement agency in charge of the controlled substances laws and regulations of the United States  
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)   an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services that is responsible for protecting the public health by assuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our nation’s food supply,  
Error-Prone Abbreviations   a set of medical abbreviations that are easily misread for a variety of reasons (see also dangerous abbreviation)  


   


 
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