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Chapter 01

TermDefinition
physiology the study of normal body function
pathophysiology the study of abnormal body processes or disease
pharmaceutics the study of how drugs are introduced to the body
pharmacokinetics the study of how drugs are absorbed into the bloodstream (absorption), circulated to tissues throughout the body (distribution), inactivated (metabolized), and eliminated from the bloodstream over time (metabolism and excretion)
pharmacodynamics the study of drugs and their receptors on the molecular level
pharmacotherapeutics the study of how drugs are used in clinical practice for individual patients
learning styles inventory a tool that determines how you prefer to receive information, understand it, and commit it to memory (gives insight into how your brain works)
learning style an individuals preferred method of learning
Pharmacists’ Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS) a learning styles tool that Zubin Austin adapted in 2003 from Kolb’s theory of learning
Phase I clinical trial research study where drugs are first tested in healthy human subjects
generic drug name the name given to a drug when its patent is approved, assigned prior phase I clinical trials (before assigning a brand name); usually the drug’s name is somehow similar to others in the same class which exert the same activity
Phase II clinical trial research study where drugs are first tested in small groups of human subjects with the disease or condition that the drug is intended to treat
Phase III clinical trial research study where drugs are tested in large groups of human subjects with the disease or condition that the drug is intended to treat
brand name the name given to a drug after phase III clinical trials, when the drug enters the market; name for which the manufacturer receives copyright/trademark rights and markets a drug
Phase IV clinical trial postmarketing research studies for drugs to delineate additional information including its risks, benefits, and optimal use
generic substitution prescriptions that are written in brand names are often egally filled in the pharmacy with generic products
major drug class drugs grouped according to their mechanism of action
therapeutic class individual drug classes lumped together according to their therapeutic use (for a specific condition/disease or on a particular body system)
“look-alike” drug name generic or brand drug name that look similar to one another and could possibly cause errors with product confusion
“sound-alike” drug name generic or brand drug name that sound similar to one another and could possibly cause errors with product confusion
legend drug medication available only by prescription (see also prescription drug)
prescription drug medication available only by prescription (see also legend drug)
over-the-counter (OTC) medication medicatios that can be bought and used without a prescription
controlled substance medicatios that has potential for abuse and dependence
Schedule I substance substances with no legitamate medical use that are illegal or only available for research or experimental purposes
Schedule II–V substances substances with legitimate medical use but that have potential for dependence and abuse; can be legally dispensed with restrictions on numbers of refills and quantities
precursor any substance that is transformed into another substance
pregnancy categorization categorization system developed to help assess risk to the developing fetus of drugs taken when a woman is pregnant
teratogenic drugs that can cause birth defects or malformations in a developing fetus
Western medicine this type of medicine relies on the scientific method, whereby truth is determined only through observation and controlled experimentation; often called traditional medicine
Eastern medicine an older type of medicine that uses many herbs and alternative therapies and recognizes a person’s spiritual being and balance
dietary and nutritional supplements vitamins and herbal products regulated as food, not as drugs
homeopathy an alternative medicine method that treats an ailment with a substance, usually an herb, that causes similar symptoms as the ailment itself
acupuncture the insertion of needles at specific points on the body to unblock energy channels
acupressure the application of pressure at specific points on the body to enhance energy flow
chiropractic therapy the use of nondrug modalities such as manipulation to achieve better body alignment and health
ayurveda a form of East Indian medicine that recognizes five elements (earth, wind, water, fire, ether) and involves spiritual and whole-body well-being; employs changes in diet and lifestyle
biofeedback the use of mental exercise and relaxation, to slow the heartbeat, lower blood pressure, and reduce stomach problems
prescribing terms and pharmacy abbreviations shortened forms of medical terms and drugs
medication error an event in which a patient is harmed (or potentially harmed) by a medication in some way that could have been prevented
Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) a nonprofit organization educating the healthcare community and consumers about safe medication practices
dangerous abbreviation a set of medical abbreviations that are easily misread for a variety of reasons (see also error-prone abbreviations)
dosage form formulation by which a drug is delivered to the body
systemic effect when a drug must enter the bloodstream to reach its site of action
local effect the drug effect seen when administered directly to the site of action (without first traveling through the bloodstream)
route of administration refers to where in or on the body a drug is administered
oral administering a drug by mouth (see also peroral)
peroral (PO) administering a drug by mouth (see also oral)
tablet the solid dosage form produced by compression and containing one or more active and inactive ingredients
capsule the dosage form containing powder, liquid, or granules in a gelatin covering
liquid form a fluid dosage form (usually aqueous) that is used to administer drug therapy either given internally or applied externally
syrup an aqueous solution thickened with a large amount of sugar (generally sucrose) or a sugar substitute such as sorbitol or propylene glycol
orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) tablets that dissolve quickly on the tongue and are absorbed directly in the mouth
sublingual route of administration where the drug is placed under the tongue and it dissolves quickly; drug is absorbed directly in the mouth
buccal route of administration where the drug is placed in the cheek and dissolves quickly; drug is absorbed directly in the mouth
solution liquid containing dissolved substances
suspension liquid containing with particulate matter
parenteral route of administration where drug is injected
intramuscular (IM) route of administration where drug is injected directly in a muscle
deltoid upper arm muscle commonly used for drug administration
gluteus medius buttocks muscle commonly used for drug administration
intravenous (IV) route of administration where drug is injected directly in a vein
continuous infusion a small catheter (plastic tube) is inserted into a vein and left in place while IV fluid containing a drug runs through it into the blood
peripheral IV line an IV inserted into a vein in the arm, wrist, or hand and is used when small amounts of fluid need to be given or the time over which the fluid will infuse is a few days or less
central IV line an IV inserted into one of the larger veins in the upper chest area near the clavicle and is used when large volumes of fluid must be given, many repeated infusions will be needed, or the time over which the infusion is needed is longer than a few days
subcutaneous (SQ or SC) route of administration where drug is injected into the fatty tissue under the dermal layer of the skin and above the muscular tissue
intrathecal (IT) route of administration where drug is injected into the spinal column between vertebrae in the back
epidural injection (EI) injectios using a small catheter to deliver drug directly into the spinal column over time
intradermal (ID) route of administration where drug is injected just underneath the top layer of skin (epidermis)
tuberculosis (TB) skin test (PPD) a test administered to determine if an individual has developed an immune response to the bacteria that causes tuberculosis, a disease of the lungs and other body tissues and organs
rectal a drug administration route where drug is inserted into the rectum and allowed to melt or dissolve in place
transdermal route of administration where a drug delivery system is applied to the skin, so that the drug is slowly absorbed through the skin over time
implant the insertion of drugs just below the skin to release drug slowly over time (months to years).
topical a route of administration used with the intention that the drug will not be systemically absorbed; usually administered to the skin, lung tissue, eyes, and vagina
dermal route of administration where drug is applied topically to the skin
inhalation route of administration where drug is delivered into the lungs by breathing it in through the mouth
intranasal route of administration where drug is sprayed into the nose
ophthalmic route of administration where drug is delivered topically to the eye
otic route of administration where drug is delivered into the external ear canal
vaginal route of administration where drug is delivered by inserting and applying medication into the vagina
Chinese Medicine a type of medicine practice originating in China that uses Eastern medical philosophies of holistic health
“five rights” of drug administration to ensure correct drug administration a technician should verify that it is the right patient, the right drug, the right strength, the right time, and the right route
Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) a law enforcement agency in charge of the controlled substances laws and regulations of the United States
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services that is responsible for protecting the public health by assuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our nation’s food supply,
Error-Prone Abbreviations a set of medical abbreviations that are easily misread for a variety of reasons (see also dangerous abbreviation)
Created by: softcrylic