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Davis Slides

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.
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Question
Answer
Name the four cardinal sign of inflammation   Redness Heat Pain Swelling  
Steroids block the inflammatory process where   Arachidonic acid  
NSAIDs block where   The COX cycle into the prostaglandins  
How do Steroids work   ARACHNOID ACID Block the production of inflammatory agents Decrease dilation and permeability of vessels Decrease WBC proliferation and mast cell degranulation ( Allergic response)  
Name two inflammatory agents   Prostaglandins Inflammatory mediators  
Name three inflammatory mediators   Cytokines Leukotrienes complement  
What are the SYSTEMIC side effects/ Complication of steroids   stomach ulcers more susceptible to infections-herpes mask underlying disorders delay wound healing psychoses moon face muscle and bone weakness growth retardation in children  
How do you discontinue steroid Rx   Taper- Gradually  
What are the main ocular side effects of steroids?   posterior sub-capsular cataract (PSC) Increased in IOP Reactivate herpes  
Is PSC (posterior sub-capsular cataract)Reversible?   No  
**Increased IOP due to steroids**   More common in patients with Glaucoma may Raise as high as 10mm Hg Generally reversible after 1-3 weeks  
What are two forms of prednisolone gtts? Which one is stronger?   Acetate-strongest Phosphate  
What is the strongest and most effective topical steroid?   Difluprednate *perdnisolone is the next strongest  
Which is the least effective and weakest topical steroid?   Medrysone  
Which topical steroid have the most and strongest side effects and which have to least?   Strongest- Difluprednate, prednisone acetate, Dexamthasone Weakest- Medrysone weakest- Fluorometholone  
Steroids combined with what are frequently used to treat blepharitis and OSD?   Antibiotics  
Name ocular disorders topical steroids commonly used to treat?   Blepharitis and OSD severe allergic blepharitis Phlyctentules stromal herpes simplex herpes zoster (Shingles) corneal transplant immune reactions post-operative cataract and glaucoma surgeries uveitis sclerities chemical burns  
Name SYSTEMIC ocular disorders treated with steroids   Optic Neuritis Temporal Arteritis (Giant Cell Arterities-GCA) Graves Ophthalmopathy  
Intravitreal steroids are used for?   CSME in diabetes, Vascular occlusion, WET ARMD  
The body produces antibodies in response to what?   Antigens  
What are Antigens?   Any substance that stimulates production of antibodies.  
Anti-histamines block the allergic response where?   H-1 receptor site  
Mast cell stabilizers act by during what?   Preventing granulation of Mast cells  
Mast cell deanulation produce what?   Histamine, Cytokins, and prostaglandins  
The lowest level of treatment of allergic conjunctivitis is what?   Astringents, AF, and other OCULAR Decongestants  
Mild allergic conjunctivitis is treated how?   Antihistamines  
Moderate allergic conjunctivites is treat with what?   Combination: antihistamines and mast cells stabilizers  
Name some of the ocular decongestants   Phenylephrine 1/8%, Naphazoline 1/8%, Tetrahydrozoline 1/8%  
What is the weakest decongestant?   Phenylephrine  
Name three mast cell stab/anti-histamine drugs   Olpatadines, Ketotifens, Bepotastine  
Which combination drug (mast cell stab/anti-histamine) is OTC   Ketotifens  
Name a good anti-histamine?   Alcaftadine- works in minutes and last up to 16hrs  
When a drug has '-A' at the end what kind is it?   Decongestant with antihistamine  
what do you tell patients about the use of Anti-histamines   stings dry eye use for short time, because of rebound  
pure mast cells destabilizes are primary use for what and how long does it take to be effective?   vernal conjunctives and Giant papillary conjunctives-4 weeks  
what are the side effects of pure mast cells destabilizes?   Unpleasant taste, cough, runny nose, throat irritation  
what is vernal keratoconjunctities? what are it's sign and symptoms?   Severe form of allergic conjunctivitis. GPC & phlctentules  
what is atopic keratoconjunctivites   form of allergic skin lesions with ocular symptoms.  
What are the anti-VEGF drugs used for? Name them   CSME in diabetes wet ARMD Vadcular occlusion to treat neovascularization  
Name the anti-VEGF drugs   ranibizumab bevacizumab aflibercept  
what three drugs are used to treat Retinal/choroidal diagnosis?   fluoroscein Indocyanine green Infracyanine green  
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN Indocyanine Green AND Infracyanine Green   Indocyanine Green AND Infracyanine Green- USED IN THE CHOROID Infracyanine Green- DOES NOT HAVE IODINE  
WHAT DRUG IS INJECTED INTRAVITREAL FOR CSME   STEROIDS  
WHAT DRUG IS USED FOR PDT   VERTEPORFIN  
WHAT DRUG IS USED TO STAIN THE ANTERIOR CAPSULE AND MACULAR MEMBRANES?   METHYLENE BLUE  
WHAT ARE THE SIGNS OF DRY ARMD   ATROPHY AND PIGMENTARY CHANGES OF THE RPE AND RETINA, LARGE SOFT DRUSEN  
TERMS OF DRUGS AFFECTING THE SYMPATHETIC NS   ADRENERGIC  
TERMS OF DRUGS AFFECTING THE PARASYMPATHETIC NS   CHOLINERGIC  
TERMS WHICH MEANS STIMULATE OR INCREASE THE ACTION   AGONIST MIMETIC  
TERMS WHICH MEAN INHIBIT OR STOP THE ACTION   ANTAGONIST BLOCKER LYIC  
YOU CAN GET ESSENTIALLY THE SAME EFFECT IF SYMPATHOMIMETIC DRUGS BY USING WHAT KIND OF DRUGS   PARASYMATHOLYIC  
WOULD THE EFFECTS OF A SYMPATHOMIMTIC DRUG AND A PARASYMATHOLYTIC BE THE SIMILAR OR DIFFERENT?   SIMILAR  


   


 
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