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Pharm Mid- Term

Davis Slides

QuestionAnswer
Name the four cardinal sign of inflammation Redness Heat Pain Swelling
Steroids block the inflammatory process where Arachidonic acid
NSAIDs block where The COX cycle into the prostaglandins
How do Steroids work ARACHNOID ACID Block the production of inflammatory agents Decrease dilation and permeability of vessels Decrease WBC proliferation and mast cell degranulation ( Allergic response)
Name two inflammatory agents Prostaglandins Inflammatory mediators
Name three inflammatory mediators Cytokines Leukotrienes complement
What are the SYSTEMIC side effects/ Complication of steroids stomach ulcers more susceptible to infections-herpes mask underlying disorders delay wound healing psychoses moon face muscle and bone weakness growth retardation in children
How do you discontinue steroid Rx Taper- Gradually
What are the main ocular side effects of steroids? posterior sub-capsular cataract (PSC) Increased in IOP Reactivate herpes
Is PSC (posterior sub-capsular cataract)Reversible? No
**Increased IOP due to steroids** More common in patients with Glaucoma may Raise as high as 10mm Hg Generally reversible after 1-3 weeks
What are two forms of prednisolone gtts? Which one is stronger? Acetate-strongest Phosphate
What is the strongest and most effective topical steroid? Difluprednate *perdnisolone is the next strongest
Which is the least effective and weakest topical steroid? Medrysone
Which topical steroid have the most and strongest side effects and which have to least? Strongest- Difluprednate, prednisone acetate, Dexamthasone Weakest- Medrysone weakest- Fluorometholone
Steroids combined with what are frequently used to treat blepharitis and OSD? Antibiotics
Name ocular disorders topical steroids commonly used to treat? Blepharitis and OSD severe allergic blepharitis Phlyctentules stromal herpes simplex herpes zoster (Shingles) corneal transplant immune reactions post-operative cataract and glaucoma surgeries uveitis sclerities chemical burns
Name SYSTEMIC ocular disorders treated with steroids Optic Neuritis Temporal Arteritis (Giant Cell Arterities-GCA) Graves Ophthalmopathy
Intravitreal steroids are used for? CSME in diabetes, Vascular occlusion, WET ARMD
The body produces antibodies in response to what? Antigens
What are Antigens? Any substance that stimulates production of antibodies.
Anti-histamines block the allergic response where? H-1 receptor site
Mast cell stabilizers act by during what? Preventing granulation of Mast cells
Mast cell deanulation produce what? Histamine, Cytokins, and prostaglandins
The lowest level of treatment of allergic conjunctivitis is what? Astringents, AF, and other OCULAR Decongestants
Mild allergic conjunctivitis is treated how? Antihistamines
Moderate allergic conjunctivites is treat with what? Combination: antihistamines and mast cells stabilizers
Name some of the ocular decongestants Phenylephrine 1/8%, Naphazoline 1/8%, Tetrahydrozoline 1/8%
What is the weakest decongestant? Phenylephrine
Name three mast cell stab/anti-histamine drugs Olpatadines, Ketotifens, Bepotastine
Which combination drug (mast cell stab/anti-histamine) is OTC Ketotifens
Name a good anti-histamine? Alcaftadine- works in minutes and last up to 16hrs
When a drug has '-A' at the end what kind is it? Decongestant with antihistamine
what do you tell patients about the use of Anti-histamines stings dry eye use for short time, because of rebound
pure mast cells destabilizes are primary use for what and how long does it take to be effective? vernal conjunctives and Giant papillary conjunctives-4 weeks
what are the side effects of pure mast cells destabilizes? Unpleasant taste, cough, runny nose, throat irritation
what is vernal keratoconjunctities? what are it's sign and symptoms? Severe form of allergic conjunctivitis. GPC & phlctentules
what is atopic keratoconjunctivites form of allergic skin lesions with ocular symptoms.
What are the anti-VEGF drugs used for? Name them CSME in diabetes wet ARMD Vadcular occlusion to treat neovascularization
Name the anti-VEGF drugs ranibizumab bevacizumab aflibercept
what three drugs are used to treat Retinal/choroidal diagnosis? fluoroscein Indocyanine green Infracyanine green
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN Indocyanine Green AND Infracyanine Green Indocyanine Green AND Infracyanine Green- USED IN THE CHOROID Infracyanine Green- DOES NOT HAVE IODINE
WHAT DRUG IS INJECTED INTRAVITREAL FOR CSME STEROIDS
WHAT DRUG IS USED FOR PDT VERTEPORFIN
WHAT DRUG IS USED TO STAIN THE ANTERIOR CAPSULE AND MACULAR MEMBRANES? METHYLENE BLUE
WHAT ARE THE SIGNS OF DRY ARMD ATROPHY AND PIGMENTARY CHANGES OF THE RPE AND RETINA, LARGE SOFT DRUSEN
TERMS OF DRUGS AFFECTING THE SYMPATHETIC NS ADRENERGIC
TERMS OF DRUGS AFFECTING THE PARASYMPATHETIC NS CHOLINERGIC
TERMS WHICH MEANS STIMULATE OR INCREASE THE ACTION AGONIST MIMETIC
TERMS WHICH MEAN INHIBIT OR STOP THE ACTION ANTAGONIST BLOCKER LYIC
YOU CAN GET ESSENTIALLY THE SAME EFFECT IF SYMPATHOMIMETIC DRUGS BY USING WHAT KIND OF DRUGS PARASYMATHOLYIC
WOULD THE EFFECTS OF A SYMPATHOMIMTIC DRUG AND A PARASYMATHOLYTIC BE THE SIMILAR OR DIFFERENT? SIMILAR
Created by: Orange15