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TVAP vocab-midterm

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Pre-production   scripts, mapping out, storyboard, casting, location (90%)  
Production   time of recording  
Post-Production   editing  
Program treatment   general overview  
Target audience   appeal factor  
Single-column script   narrative (dramas, comedy)  
Two-column script   audio on one side and video on the other  
Program rundown   overview of program  
Program information sheet (breakdown sheet)   analysis of scripts and all production elements in order of schedule  
Floor plan   layout of props, set, cameras, and talent  
Lighting plot   overview of set where lights go  
Storyboard   series of rough sketches that help visualize and organize camera treatment (director develops)  
Shot sheet (shot list)   each shot needed from camera operators  
Crew list   all crew members list  
Executive producer (EP)   funds the project; not much direct influence; organization and administration of production group; controls/coordinates business management; negotiating rights; program budget; who is hired  
Producer   oversees/manage the project; keep schedule/budget; choice of staff/crew; interdepartmental coordination; script acceptance; production scheduling; work with writers; select program concepts; meeting deadlines; production planning; rehearsals; treatments  
Associate producer   help cast; coordinate scripting/appointments; assist producer; production schedules; complete contracts; booking guests; creating packages; supervising post-production  
Writer   writes dialogue/script  
Director   visual interpretor of script; advising, guiding, coordinating production team; approve treatments; choose/hire talent; direct/ rehearse talent in pre rehearsals; guides/cues talent through FD  
Associate director (AD)   right hand of director; supervising pre rehearsals; location organization; in control room; line shots, graphics, tapes; give/check cues; check timing of program; help with post-production  
Technical director (TD)   operates switcher/switch board; crew chief  
Lighting director (LD)   direct lights; designs/develops lighting plot; design/arrange/control all lighting treatment  
Floor director (stage manager)   responsible for floor/studio; director's contact on floor, booth, in field; cue performers; direct the floor crew; studio organization, safety, discipline, security  
Camera operator   operates camera  
A-1 (audio 1/audio mixer/audio engineer)   responsible for overall audio broadcast; technical and artistic quality of sound; determine number/placement of mics; audio cables plugged into mixer; final mix of production  
A-2 (audio 2/audio assistant)   position mics; run audio cables; operate boom; troubleshooting audio problems; operate field equipment  
Engineer   maintain all equipment  
VTR operator   record program; play prerecorded packages; replays  
Graphics (still store vs chyron) operator   anchors name on screen; implements graphics during production; organizing/typing onscreen text and titles S- recall for later C- on air  
Production assistant (PA)   help producer/director; supervising production office; make coffee; run errands; make copies; pre rehearsals; location organizing; take notes in production meetings  
Talent   people who appear/heard on screen; actors; anchors; reporters  
The image gathering process   lens gather light  
3 primary colors of television   red, green, blue  
CCD & CMOS   charge coupled device; complementary metal oxide semiconductor  
Standard definition (SD) screen aspect ratio   4:3  
Standard definition (SD) screen resolution   720x480  
High definition (HD) screen aspect ratio   16:9  
High definition (HD) screen resolution   1280x720  
Interlace scanning   2 fields for every 1 frame; odd numbered lines first and then paints even lines  
Progressive scanning   paints all lines at once  
Fields & frames   2 fields for 1 frame  
Zoom   lens has variable focal length  
Focus   adjust lens for sharpest image  
Tilt   camera moves up or down  
Pan   camera pivots left or right on mount  
Dolly   move whole camera and mount on mount  
Truck   camera and mount move left or right  
Pedestal (ped)   raise camera  
Arc   camera moves around subject in circle/horseshoe  
Jib/crane   arm fits on tripod and allows camera to move up or down  
Shot types   CU- close up; emphasis on face MS- medium shot; frames subject from waist up WS- wide shot; establishing shot  
Headroom   space from top of head to upper frame  
Noseroom   space from face and edge of frame  
Leadroom   space from front of/direction of moving subject  
Rule of thirds   guide/help compose picture  
Over the shoulder shot (OTS)   reverse shot including portion of head/shoulder  
Depth of field   range of focal length  
Focal length   distance from lens optical center to image sensor  
Field of view   area that is visible through optical instrument  
Iris/lens aperture   adjustable diaphragm of lens  
F-stop   light allowed through lens  
Tally lights   light on camera that shows which is recording  
Chip chart   grayscale chart at beginning of every shot to correct colors during editing  
White balance   calibration of camera so light will be accurately white  
Fresnel fixture   universal hard spotlight; most used  
Ellipsoidal fixture   sharply focused hard spotlight  
Scoop fixture   light spread uncontrollably; inexpensive; soft/flood light  
Open lamp fixture   spot/flood; portable and compact  
Broad lamp fixture   short trough with light reflector; soft; wide angle; light weight  
Quartz lamp   tungsten halogen  
Florescent lamp   sealed gas filled tube with phosphor-coated inner surface  
Incandescent lamp   tungsten; filament; cheap and reliable  
Gel   colored flexible plastic filters to adjust color of lights; over light  
Barndoors   adjustable flaps on frame; cut off light beams/restrict light  
Cookie   perforated opaque/translucent sheet; creates shadows/breakup light/patterns  
Screen   protects electromagnetic interference  
Softlight   illumination uncontrolled; lamp reflected off back of lighting instrument  
Hardlight   sharp edged shadows; key light  
Spot vs flood   S- illuminate spot F- flood area with light  
Baselight   minimal amount of light that allows the camera to see the subject  
Background light   light illuminating the background alone  
Effects light   project patterns; spotlights  
Key light   main source of light  
Fill light   soften and control key shadows  
Back light   separates subject form background  
3 point lighting   dramas and interviews; directional and diffused  
Silhouette   outline visible against lighter background  
Kelvin (K) temperature   color hue/temperature  
Footcandle   measure of intensity  
Lighting grid   all lights connected to grid on ceiling  
Twist-lock connector   twist action to lock connector together  
Edison connector   parallel blade plug  
C clamp   hold lights; secure lamps  
Safety chain   chain on light to secure to grid  
Lighting (dimmer) board   adjust/control all lights and intensity  
Scrim   heat proof cloth to diffuse light; substitute-dryer sheets  
Cyclorama (cyc)   illuminate backgrounds with broad light  
Dynamic   rugged, good quality sound; low maintenance  
Condensor   high audio quality; battery/power source  
Ribbon   desk/voice over; cardioid  
Omni-directional   wide pickup pattern; all directions  
Bi-directional   2 different directions; front and back  
Unidirectional   sensitive to sounds directly in front  
Cardioid   1 directional; vocal/news; handheld  
Super-cardioid   narrow pick-up pattern  
Hyper-cardioid   shotgun  
Lavalier mic   interviews; actors; refs; cardioid and condenser  
Hand held mic   interviews; singers; commentators; cardioid or omni  
Boom mic   mic above head  
Wireless mic   lavalier and handheld  
Pressure zone mic (PZM)   low profile to capture audio from ceiling or floor; cardioid  
Hanging mic   orchestra and choirs; high quality sound  
XLR connectors   plugs and sockets; electrical connector design  
Phone 1/4" connectors   audio connectors; audiojack  
Impedance   resistance of electrical circuit to alternating current  
Balanced vs unbalanced   B-send audio protects from interference; 3 conductors for 1 signal U- 2 lines transmit signal  
Decibels (dB)   measure intensity of sound  
VU meters   volume unit; % modulation  
Volume vs gain   V- degree of sound/loudness G- voltage/ power increase  
Distortion   alternation of original shape  
Feedback   squeal from loudspeaker by re-entry of loudspeaker sound into mic  
Foldback   intentional playback of audio cues to studio floor  
IFB (interruptible foldback)   broadcasting/motion picture production- cueing, communication (crew), audio monitoring  
Zero tone (1K tone)   standard frequency to calibrate audio  
Segue   uninterrupted transition from 1 piece to another  
Crossfade   gradual increase/decrease of signal levels  
Video switcher   video signals switch with sources and audio; switch camera to camera  
MLE (multilayer effect)   effects on green screen/chromakey  
Program bus   on air  
Preview (preset) bus   about to go on air  
Key   key in  
DSK (downstream key)   graphic overlay of regular video on tv  
DVE (digital video effect)   transitions from 1 scene to another  
Cut   instantaneous switch from 1 shot to next  
Dissolve   gradual transition between 2 images  
Fade   dissolve between black and video images  
Wipe   special effect transition between 2 images  
Upcut   turn on mic after anchor began speaking/before stopped talking  
Downcut   turn off mic after talking  
Still store   recall for later  
Chyron   on air  
VTR (video tape recorder)   records program; replays  
Teleprompter   computer generated text on reflective glass over lens of camera  
Color bars & 1K tone (bars and tone)   c-reference pattern for matching the video output of multiple cameras t- balance  


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