Question | Answer |

science | the observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of phenomena |

pseudoscience | a theory, methodology, or practice falsely presented as scientific |

technology | the application of science to the needs of society, esp. to industrial or commercial objectives |

ethics | a set of principles or right conduct in a society, moral philosophy |

reality | the state of things as they actually exist; everything that is, whether or not it is observable or comprehensible |

perception | the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information |

observation | becoming aware of through careful and directed attention |

inductive reasoning | the process of deriving general principles from particular facts or instances; specific observation to general conclusions. Ex. All sheep I've seen are white, so all sheep must be white |

deductive reasoning | the process of reasoning in which a conclusion follows necessarily from the premises; from the general to the specific; Ex: All turtles have shells, the animal I have captured is a turtle, and so I conclude that the animal in my bag has a shell |

scientific methods | procedures that scientists use to solve a problem or answer a question; steps; observation, state the problem, research (background information), form a hypothesis, test a hypothesis (experiment), record and analyze data, state a conclusion |

engineering methods | procedures that engineers use to solve a problem; steps: define a need, develop criteria, research, prepare preliminary designs, build and test a prototype, retest and redesign as necessary |

journal | a scientist's laboratory notebook containing the written record of mental and physical activities from their research project. |

annotated bibliography | a list of citations to books, articles, and documents followed by a brief descriptive and evaluative paragraph of the relevancy, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited |

APA citation style | the American Psychological Association format for work cited; preferred for writing in science |

Primary source | a source that in an expert in the field being researched |

hypothesis | a tentative explanation for an observation or phenomenon that can be used as the basis for an investigation |

controlled experiment | isolates the effect of one variable on a system by holding constant all variables but the one under observation |

protocol | a set procedure for a scientific experiment |

control | part of an experiment that remains the same |

variable | a changed factor in an experiment |

independent variable | manipulated variable; the scientist deliberately changes it |

dependent variable | responding variable; responds to changes in the manipulated variable |

qualitative data | measure of differences in type rather than amounts. Qualities distinguish these items, Examples include race, gender, and color. also called categorical data |

quantitative data | measure quantity. These are things to which we can assign a number, or that can be measured. Examples include age, height, and weight; also called measurement variables |

accuracy | a measurement of the closeness with an accepted value |

precision | degree of exactness; how close a series of measurements are to one another |

random errors | statistical fluctuation in measured data due to precision limitations of the measurements device; usually result from the experimenter's inability to take the same measurement in exactly the same way to get exactly the same number |

systematic errors | reproducible inaccuracies that are consistently in the same direction; due to a problem (such as am improperly tared scale), which persists throughout the entire experiment |

significant digits | those digits of a number that carry meaning contributing to its precision |

dimensional analysis | a conceptual tool often applied in science, engineering, mathematics, and statistics to understand physical situations involving a mix of different kinds of physical quantities |

continuous variables | take on any value on the scale used to measure it; measure "how much" examples include mass, length, and volume |

discrete variables | can assume only a few possible values on the scale used to measure it; divisions of these values are not valid, measure of "how many" |

mean | arithmetic average, the most common measure of center |

median | represents the middle value in a distribution |

mode | the most repeated number in a distribution |

range | first to last number in an ordered pair; to find subtract the smallest observation from the largest |

quartile | a fourth of a group of numbers |

interquartile range | a measurement of the distance between the first and third quartiles; measures the spread of the middle half of the data |

five number summary | consists of the smallest observation, the first quartile, the median, the third quartile, and the largest observation of a data set |

outliers | an observation that is numerically distant from the rest of the data. An observation is an outlier if it falls more than 1.5 x IQR below Q1 or above Q3 |

variance | the sum of the squared deviation divided by n-1 |

standard deviation | measurement of the spread of values; square root of the variance |

stem and leaf plots | a display that organizes data to show its shape and distribution, Each Data value is split into a "stem" and a "leaf." The "leaf" is usually the last digit of the number and the other digits to the left of the "leaf(s)" form the the stem |

box and whisker plots | graphical representation helpful in interpreting the distribution of data. A box is drawn with ends thru Q1 and Q3.Then a vertical line is drawn through the box at the median.Next the lines are drawn from each end of the box to the smallest/largest values |

histogram | a bar graph of frequency distribution, can be skewed or in a bell shaped curve |

bell curve | normal "bell shaped" curve of a histogram; they have identifiable standard deviation |

normal distribution | a population of continuous variables in a bell shaped symmetrical curve |

skewed distribution | a population of continuous variables in an asymmetrical curve, whos lopsidedness of frequencies |

null hypothesis | states that any difference seen in two sets of numbers is simply due to chance and is not significant. P values of less than 0.05 are generally considered adequate for rejection |

t test | a technique for analyzing random samples of continuous variables from normally distributed populations |

chi squared test | "goodness of fit" test; used to evaluate the differences between experimental and observed data of discrete variables |

conclusion | a decision based on observations |

inference | reasoning from factual knowledge or evidence |

theory | in science , a well tested explanation of a natural phenomenon that unifies a broad range of observations with a high degree of confidence |

fact | knowledge or information based on real occurrences |