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SRD Fall Review

science the observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of phenomena
pseudoscience a theory, methodology, or practice falsely presented as scientific
technology the application of science to the needs of society, esp. to industrial or commercial objectives
ethics a set of principles or right conduct in a society, moral philosophy
reality the state of things as they actually exist; everything that is, whether or not it is observable or comprehensible
perception the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information
observation becoming aware of through careful and directed attention
inductive reasoning the process of deriving general principles from particular facts or instances; specific observation to general conclusions. Ex. All sheep I've seen are white, so all sheep must be white
deductive reasoning the process of reasoning in which a conclusion follows necessarily from the premises; from the general to the specific; Ex: All turtles have shells, the animal I have captured is a turtle, and so I conclude that the animal in my bag has a shell
scientific methods procedures that scientists use to solve a problem or answer a question; steps; observation, state the problem, research (background information), form a hypothesis, test a hypothesis (experiment), record and analyze data, state a conclusion
engineering methods procedures that engineers use to solve a problem; steps: define a need, develop criteria, research, prepare preliminary designs, build and test a prototype, retest and redesign as necessary
journal a scientist's laboratory notebook containing the written record of mental and physical activities from their research project.
annotated bibliography a list of citations to books, articles, and documents followed by a brief descriptive and evaluative paragraph of the relevancy, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited
APA citation style the American Psychological Association format for work cited; preferred for writing in science
Primary source a source that in an expert in the field being researched
hypothesis a tentative explanation for an observation or phenomenon that can be used as the basis for an investigation
controlled experiment isolates the effect of one variable on a system by holding constant all variables but the one under observation
protocol a set procedure for a scientific experiment
control part of an experiment that remains the same
variable a changed factor in an experiment
independent variable manipulated variable; the scientist deliberately changes it
dependent variable responding variable; responds to changes in the manipulated variable
qualitative data measure of differences in type rather than amounts. Qualities distinguish these items, Examples include race, gender, and color. also called categorical data
quantitative data measure quantity. These are things to which we can assign a number, or that can be measured. Examples include age, height, and weight; also called measurement variables
accuracy a measurement of the closeness with an accepted value
precision degree of exactness; how close a series of measurements are to one another
random errors statistical fluctuation in measured data due to precision limitations of the measurements device; usually result from the experimenter's inability to take the same measurement in exactly the same way to get exactly the same number
systematic errors reproducible inaccuracies that are consistently in the same direction; due to a problem (such as am improperly tared scale), which persists throughout the entire experiment
significant digits those digits of a number that carry meaning contributing to its precision
dimensional analysis a conceptual tool often applied in science, engineering, mathematics, and statistics to understand physical situations involving a mix of different kinds of physical quantities
continuous variables take on any value on the scale used to measure it; measure "how much" examples include mass, length, and volume
discrete variables can assume only a few possible values on the scale used to measure it; divisions of these values are not valid, measure of "how many"
mean arithmetic average, the most common measure of center
median represents the middle value in a distribution
mode the most repeated number in a distribution
range first to last number in an ordered pair; to find subtract the smallest observation from the largest
quartile a fourth of a group of numbers
interquartile range a measurement of the distance between the first and third quartiles; measures the spread of the middle half of the data
five number summary consists of the smallest observation, the first quartile, the median, the third quartile, and the largest observation of a data set
outliers an observation that is numerically distant from the rest of the data. An observation is an outlier if it falls more than 1.5 x IQR below Q1 or above Q3
variance the sum of the squared deviation divided by n-1
standard deviation measurement of the spread of values; square root of the variance
stem and leaf plots a display that organizes data to show its shape and distribution, Each Data value is split into a "stem" and a "leaf." The "leaf" is usually the last digit of the number and the other digits to the left of the "leaf(s)" form the the stem
box and whisker plots graphical representation helpful in interpreting the distribution of data. A box is drawn with ends thru Q1 and Q3.Then a vertical line is drawn through the box at the median.Next the lines are drawn from each end of the box to the smallest/largest values
histogram a bar graph of frequency distribution, can be skewed or in a bell shaped curve
bell curve normal "bell shaped" curve of a histogram; they have identifiable standard deviation
normal distribution a population of continuous variables in a bell shaped symmetrical curve
skewed distribution a population of continuous variables in an asymmetrical curve, whos lopsidedness of frequencies
null hypothesis states that any difference seen in two sets of numbers is simply due to chance and is not significant. P values of less than 0.05 are generally considered adequate for rejection
t test a technique for analyzing random samples of continuous variables from normally distributed populations
chi squared test "goodness of fit" test; used to evaluate the differences between experimental and observed data of discrete variables
conclusion a decision based on observations
inference reasoning from factual knowledge or evidence
theory in science , a well tested explanation of a natural phenomenon that unifies a broad range of observations with a high degree of confidence
fact knowledge or information based on real occurrences
Created by: is2903
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