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KIN: Vertebral Clmn

KIN: Vertebral Clmn - Structure and Kinematics

QuestionAnswer
How many IV discs are there? 23
What are the primary curves of the spine? Thoracic and sacrum
Which regions of the spine are convex anteriorly? Cervical and lumbar
When does lordosis occur in the spine? After birth
What is lordosis after birth influenced by? Head and neck extensors (Cervical lordosis), as well as action of hip flexors on pelvis (Lumbar lordosis)
Function of body of vertebrae? Primary weight bearing structure of vertebrae
What type of joints are the superior and inferior articular processes? Synovial (Plane) joints
What is the joint called between the superior and inferior articular processes? ZPJ or Facet joint
Function of Transverse processes? Muscle, ligament, and rib attachments
Function of the lamina? Protects posterior aspect of SC
What does pedicle mean? Footlike or stemlike
Function of pedicle? Connects vertebral body to posterior elements of vertebra
What does lamina mean? Flat, thin plate
Function of vertebral foramen? Houses and protects SC
Function of spinous processes? Midline attachments for muscles and ligaments
What does the posterior longitudinal ligament turn into? Tectorial membrane
Where does the posterior longitudinal ligament turn into the tectorial membrane? C2
Where is the anterior longitudinal ligament best developed? Lumbar region
Why is the ligamentum flavum yellow? Because of the high amounts of elastin
Where is the ligamentum flavum best developed? Lumbar region
How can the ligamentum flavum cause spinal stenosis? Gets thick and encroaches in vertebral canal
Which motion do patients with spinal stenosis no like regarding the ligamentum flavum? Flexion because it puts the ligament on slack
What is the function of the anterior longitudinal ligament? Limits extension
What ligaments of the spine limit flexion? Ligamentum flavum, supraspinous, interspinous, intertransverse, and posterior longitudinal ligaments
Which ligament is stronger, ALL or PLL? ALL is about 2x as strong as PLL
Function of the transverse ligament of the atlas? Prevents anterior displacement of C1 on C2
Where is the transverse ligament of the atlas found? On posterior side of dens
Which disorders is the transverse ligament of the atlas more susceptible to failure? RA and DS
Where does ligamentum flavum run? Along the posterior surface of the vertebral canal
What is the nucal ligament? Cervical extension of the supraspinous ligaments
Which ligament is stronger, transverse ligament of the atlas or Alar ligament? Transverse ligament of the atlas
What actions do intertransvese ligaments restrict? Contralateral flexion and forward flexion
What actions do the alar ligaments restrict? Contralateral flexion and rotation of occuput on spine
Where is the posterior longitudinal ligament run? Along the posterior surfaces of all vertebral bodies
Which ligaments are anterior to the SC? ALL, PLL
Where does the tectorial membrane attach? Dens and occiput
Where does the ALL run? Along the anterior surfaces of all vertebral bodies, including sacral
When are the capsules of the apophyseal joints tight and loose? Loose in near-neutral position Taut at extremes of all other positions
Which type of vertebrae are the most mobile and why? C-spine because they have no rib attachments
What is different about C7? Not a bifid spinous process
What are the unicate processes? Raises lateral hooks on C3-C6 vertebrae
What are uncovertebral joints? The uncinate processes and their adjacent superior vertebra
What is another name for the uncovertebral joints? Joints of Luschka
Which direction do the superior articular facets of the C spine face? Posterior superior
Which direction do the inferior articular facets of the C spine face? Anterior inferior
Which vertebrae supports the head? C1 (Atlas)
What is another name for the dens of C2? Odontoid process
Which cervical vertebrae is the largest? C7
What does C1 NOT have that other C spine have? Body, pedicle, lamina, spinous process
What shape are the superior articular facets of C2? Slightly convex
What are the ligaments of the AAJ? Transverse ligament Alar ligament
What is another name for the transverse ligament? Atlantal crusiform ligament
What do joints of luschka do? Limit side bending, especially with age
Why are the transverse processes of T spine thickened? For the costal tubercles
What does the T spine have for articulations with the ribs? Demifacets
What limits movement in the T spine? Ribs and spinous process formations
Which direction do the superior articular facets of the lumbar face? Posterior medial
Which direction do the inferior articular facets of the lumbar face? Anterior lateral
What happens to the lumbosacral angle during lordosis? Increases
What happens to the lumbosacral angle with a flat back? Decreases
Which lumbar vertebrea is wedge shaped and why? 5th one because it helps to fit with the sacrum
What provides the greatest source of adhesion between vertebrae? IV discs
What absorb and distribute loads across the vertebral column from body weight and muscle contraction? IV discs
What carries 80% of the spinal load? IV discs
What happens to the IV discs with age? Dehydrate and less able to cushion loads
What is the correlation between the intervertebral space and the movement of one vertebral body on another? The greater the intervertebral space, the greater the movement of one vertebral body on another
Each vertebra can move in how many directions? 6 different directions - 3 translations, 3 rotations, around 3 axes
In youth, how much of the nucleus pulposus in the lumbar discs consists of water? 70-90%
What is the nucleus pulposus thickened with? Proteoglycans and type II collagen fibers
How many layers make u pthe annulus fibrosus of lumbar discs? 15-25 layers of type I and II collagen
What are lamellae? The layers of the annulus fibrosus
Which rings of the annulus contain blood vessels? Only the peripheral ones (outer 1/3)
How do IV discs primarily receive nutrition? Through diffusion of substance through vertebral endplates
What is a Schmorl's node? Intrusion of the disc into the end plate and body of vertebrae
Dooes pure lateral flexion or pure rotation occur in any region of the spine? No
What does bending cause? Both compression and tension
What does torsion cause? Axial rotation
What does shearing cause? Side to side or anterior to posterior movements
How are C spine articular facets oriented? Superior - posterior superior Inferior - anterior inferior
How are T spine articular facets oriented? Superior - posterior Inferior - anterior
How are the L spine articular facets oriented? Superior - medial posterior Inferior - lateral anterior
How do the inferior articular facets move during flexion? Anterior and superior on the superior articular facets on the C vertebrae below and just opposite for extension
What plane are the L spine oriented in? Sagittal plane
What movements do the L spine favor and restrict due to the orientation? Favor - flex/ext Restrict - rotation
What plane are the T spine oriented in? Coronal plane
What movements do the L spine favor and restrict due to the orientation? Favor - lateral flex Restrict - flex/ext
How is motion described in the spine? By the movement of the inferior articular facet on the superior articular facet
What does the ligamentum flavum turn into once it reaches C2? AA ligament
What does the anterior longitudinal ligament turn into once it reaches C2? Anterior AA ligament
What is another name for the OA joint? Nodding joint, C0-C1
When is the cervical vertebral canal volume the greatest and when is it the least? Greatest - full flexion Least - full extension
Do you have more cervical flexion or extension? Extension
Arthrokinematics of the occiptal condyles on the superior facets of C1 Flexion - Rolls forward, slides posteriorly Extension - Rolls backwards, slides anteriorly
What do the inferior articular facets of the superior C vertebrae do during extension (C2-C7)? Slide inferiorly and posteriorly
What is the close-packed position? That which maximizes the area of joint contact and tension in the surrounding capsular ligaments
What do the inferior articular facets of the superior C vertebrae do during flexion (C2-C7) Slide superiorly and anteriorly
What motion does the C spine do during protraction? Lower C spine - flexion Upper C spine - extension
What motion does the C spine do during retraction? Lower C spine - extension Upper C spine - flexion
Where does most of the rotation in the C spine come from? AAJ
What do the R inferior facets of C2-C7 do during R rotation? Slide posteriorly and inferiorly
What do the L inferior facets of C2-C7 do during R rotation? Slide anteriorly and superiorly
What does it mean by cervical coupling? Lateral flexion and rotation must occur to the same side due to the orientation of the articular facets
Arthrokinematics of occipitals on C1 during lateral flexion Roll and slide is opposite
How much does full flexion increase the diameter of the IV foramen? 19%
How much does full extension decrease the diameter of the IV foramen? 11%
Created by: 1185240090