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PA: Heat

QuestionAnswer
What is heat used for? Pain relief Promote relaxation Increase blood flow Facilitate tissue healing Decrease muscle spasm Prepare stiff joints for exercise
What two types of heat are there? Superficial and deep
How far down does superficial heat reach? 1-3 cm
What are examples of superficial heating? Heat pads Paraffin WWP
What does superficial heating reach? Mostly skin Some subcutaneous and muscle
How far down does deep heat reach? Up to 5 cm
What are examples of deep heating? Continuous US Diathermy
What does deep heating reach? Muscle belly Deeper portions of joint capsule
What happens to the metabolic rate with heat? Increases 2-3 times for each 10 degree C of an increase in temperature
What 3 factors influence the vasodilation of heat-exposed skin? Axon reflex Release of chemical mediators Local SC reflex
What do the changes in the body due to heat depend upon? How much the temp increases Rate of increase Volume of tissue exposed Tissue composition Capacity of tissue to dissipate heat
What is the therapeutic level of heating for tissues? Tissue must be increased to between 40 and 45 degree C
What are the vascular responses to heat? Vasodilation
What is the change in temperature of skin determined by? Sympathetic nervous system
What is the change in temperature of skeletal muscle determined by? Metabolic control
How does axonal reflex energy dispersal work? Cutaneous thermoreceptors are stimulated Impulses are sent to SC from cutaneous receptors and toward skin blood vessels A vasoactive mediator is released
How does chemical mediator energy dispersal work? Heat produced mild inflammation due to the chemical mediators that are released
What chemical mediators are released with heat? Histamine and prostaglandins
What are histamines and prostaglandins responsible for? Vasodilation
What does sweat sweat secretion (due to temperature elevation) release? Enzymes that release bradykinin
What does increased capillary permeability allow? Fluid to leak out into the interstitial space (edema)
What does the spinal reflex do? Cutaneous nerves send signals to spine SC sends signals to decrease symapthetic activity
What does the decrease in sympathetic activity allow blood vessels to do? Relax (vasodilation)
What type of heat does muscle have the greatest response to? Exercise
What happens to the blood in the skin with vigorous exercise? It's shunted away
What is heat used for in terms of neuromuscular response? Analgesia and spasms
What are the neuromuscular responses to heat? Alters nerve conduction velocity
What is the pain-spasm-pain cycle? Have pain - go into spasm - have more pain - go into more spasm
Are modalities liely to increase temps enough to affect type II or Ib afferents? No
How does a MHP decrease spasm if it can't increase the temp enough to be effective? Heats up skin Decrease in gamma efferent which doesn't stretch spindle as much Then you start reducing afferent activity This results in motor neuron decreasing firing and decreasing spasms
What effects does heat have on strength and endurance? It will decrease some during the first 30 minutes after heating ends and will gradually increase over the next two hours
What effects does heat have in connective tissue? Can alter viscoelastic properties
What do viscous properties allow? Connective tissue to be elongated after stretch released
What do elastic properties allow? Tissues to return to pre-stretch state
What three techniques are used to stretch connective tissue? Constant load Rapid stretch Constant rate of stretching
How long should collagen (IT band) be stretched to really see effects? 2-4 hours
Created by: 1185240090