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Psych Intro

psych the systematic, scientific study of behavior and mental processes
4 goals of psych Describe - What is happening? Explain - Why is it happening? Predict - When will it occur? Control - How do we cope with and modify the behavior?
Emperical Approach All knowledge is based on experience.
Wilhelm Wundt: structuralism this structuralist thinker founded the first psychological laboratory at Leipzig University, in 1879. Wundt focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components.Explores the structural elements of the human mind.
introspection the self-observation and reporting of conscious inner thoughts, desires and sensations. It is a conscious and purposive process relying on thinking, reasoning, and examining one's own thoughts, feelings
William James: functionalism James focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function. The nose smells because it was adaptive. how did the mind function
Max Wertheimer: Gestalt approach
Freud: history of psychoanalysis how childhood experiences and our unconscious thought processes affect our behavior
Watson & Skinner: history of behaviorism science is rooted in observation -can only see behavior, not thoughts/feelings
Rogers & Abraham: history of humanistic approach went against Freud and behaviorism, too mechanic. -emphasised the effect of current environmental influences and our need for love and acceptance
cognitive neuroscience 1960's, emphasis on mental processes -the study of brain activity linked to cognition (perception, thinking, memory, and language)
eclectic approach helping by using a wide range of resources
American Psychology Association growing and globalizing
nature-nurture issue -today science sees traits from both -controversy over the relative contribution that genes vs experiences make in behavior development
Darwin: Natural Selection proposed in On the Origin of Species -among trait variations, the trait that will best allow organisms to survive and reproduce will be passed on
biopsychosocial approach combines psychological, biolgical, and social-cultural influences to better explain behaviors and mental processes
7 approaches (perspectives): Biological, Behavioral, Cognitive, Humanistic, Psychodynamic, Sociocultural, Evolutionary
subfields of psychology see FAST 1.3
counseling/clinical psychology vs. psychiatry COUNSELING -help with adjustment probs -help people cope by using their own skills -treat physical causes of disorders -PSYCHIATRY can prescribe drugs
Biological How does the **body and brain** affect our behaviors & mental processes? Genes Hormones Nervous system Heredity
Behavioral How does what we learn from our environment affect our behavior & mental processes? Reinforcers (rewards) Punishments Conditioning Learning Observational learning Environment (includes school, family, work, tv, radio, etc.)
Cognitive How does the way we encode, process, store, retrieve & interpret information affect our behavior & mental processes? Memory Reasoning Thinking Solving Beliefs
Humanistic How does striving for human growth and potential affect our behaviors & mental processes? Key Words Self-actualization The “Self” Full potential Free will Choices (choice of the individual)
Psychodynamic How does our unconscious mind and childhood experiences affect our behaviors & mental processes? Unconscious fears, desires, and motivations Repressed memories Defense mechanisms Childhood experiences
Sociocultural How does our culture influence our behaviors & mental processes? Key Words Society & culture Social norms Taboos Social learning
Evolutionary How does evolution affect our behaviors & mental processes? Key Words Natural selection Ancestors Slow process Not heredity (that’s biological)
Difference btwn socialcultural and behavioral Behavioral = “small” environment Sociocultural = society - “broad” environment
Created by: chaltemi000