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Ab Psych Chapter 1

Abnormal Psychology Clinical and Scientific Perspectives by Lyons and Martin.

QuestionAnswer
Abnormal Behavior that is culturally inappropriate, is accompanied by subjective distress, and involves a psychological impairment(inability to cope with life's demands.
Cultural Relativity The perspective that different cultures may utilize different standards in the definition of abnormality.
Mental Disorders Clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndromes or patterns that involve one or more of the following: Present Distress, Disability, or Significantly increased risk of suffering, death, pain, disability, or important loss of freedom.
Diagnostic Reliability Consistency and agreement between clinicians in use of a diagnostic label.
Case Study The study of an individual clinical case.
Normative or Epidemiological Research Often involves the study of the incidence of a disorder in a population.
Random Sampling Selecting subjects by chance from some larger population.
Reliability The extent to which a measure consistently yields the same results on repeated trials.
Validity The extent to which a measure assesses what it is purported to assess.
Interobserver Reliability The extent to which different observers(or raters) agree on the way they categorize or in some way quantify a given observation.
Constructs Hypothetical or theoretical concepts that cannot be measured directly.
Construct Validity Refers to the validity of some specific way of measuring the hypothetical construct.
Correlational Research The investigator attempts to demonstrate an association or correlation between two or more measures.
Correlation Coefficient A measure of the direction and strength of relationship between variables.
Experimental Method Research method in which conditions are manipulated in order to test the effects of the manipulation on various measures.
Experimental Group Group on which the manipulation of interest is performed in an experimental design.
Control Group Group that is treated similarly to the experimental group, except that no manipulation is performed.
Significant Difference A difference unlikely to have occurred by chance and therefore reflecting a real effect.
Placebo Effect When an expectation of improvement is sufficient to cause improvement.
Double-Blind Design Type of experimental design, in which both subjects and personnel are kept blind with respect to whether a subject is in the experimental or in the control group.
Single-Subject Experimental Designs Experimental methods that do not rely on groups of people, but rather on the repeated measures form individual subjects.
Maladjusted(Disturbed) Their behaviors cause distress or harm to themselves or to others.
Sociopathic Experience little remorse or distress associated with their antisocial behavior.
If a man in the Dobu society who had a sunny, kindly disposition and who liked to be helpful, he would be considered by others of his culture. silly, simple, and a little crazy
A behavior that seems abnormal in one cultural context may very well be perfectly acceptable in a different culture of society. This is called . cultural relativity
While this is a characteristic of most abnormal behavior in all societies, it is not entirely satisfying as the sole criterion of abnormality. cultural inappropriateness
Internal emotions or experiences (e.g., fear, unhappiness, apathy, etc.) which cannot be observed directly by other people is labeled . subjective distress
Terry is unable to function adequately in her roles as an employee, parent, spouse, and friend, she can be considered to have . a psychological disbility
This indicates mental illness is similar to physical illness. disease metaphor
Jake's behavior has been deemed a psychological impairment. This means that: interferes with his roles
As opposed to the person who simply does not do certain things because of personal values or lack of interest, the perosn with a psychological impairment is "blank" to do certain things. unable
The line separating normal from abnormal behavior is difficult to establish, because abnormality is on a "blank". continuum
Gordon was relieved when he was told by a therapist that he was suffering from bipolar disorder. Labeling his behavior as bipolar disorder, however, does not actually explain his behvior. This is the main point of the naming fallacy
Mental disorders are easier to "blank" than to explain. label
The current system for identifying and diagnosing psychological problems is the . DSM-IV-TR
The current DSM was published in: 2000
The use of the phrase was initially promoted by enlightened physicians seeking to reduce stigma associated with lunacy. mental illness
The most common mental disorders among the U.S. population are: anxiety disorders
If all DSM-IV disorders are combined, about 26.6 percent of Americans experienced a defined disorder in the past "blank" months. 12
Which of the following is a limitaion using the case study method? The case study findings cannot be generalized to others
Dr. Smith is conducting a study of the prevalence of depression in the Midwest. This would be an example of . epidemiological research
The frequency of behaviors among different groups is calculated in . epidemiological research
The following are the requirements for good epidemiological research studies. random sampling, reliability, and validity
Dr. Edwards conducted three simultaneous studies in which she repeately obtained the same positive results on her new anxiety measure. As the anxiety measure yielded the same result on repeated trials, we could say that the measure has . reliability
At the Investigator' meeting for a new clinical trial, all of the raters watched and scored a videotape on the depression measure to be used in the trial. All of the raters agreed on the total score. This is known as: interobserver
Created by: apontep