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Spine

Cervical Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
C0-1 What motion does is promote? OA jt (occipital atlas joint) "yes" jt- nodding joint flex/extension
C1-2 What motion does it promote? AA jt (atlanto axial jt) "no" jt rotation 55-58% rotation
C3-7 "typical" lower cervical spine
How many jt are in the cervical spine? 37 jts
What are the most mobile areas of the spine? Cervical
What vertebrae typically has the largest spinous process? C7
Where is the 1st disc located? between c2-c3
What is another name your synovial , planar, diarthrodial? Zygapophyseal (facet) Joints
All cervical jts are weight-bearing in the what position? Upright postures
What vertebrae is shaped like a ring/washer? Atlas
Which SP are bifid? What age does this occur? c3-c6 10 yrs old
Where is den located? on the axis
Uncovertibro joints (Joints of Luschka) start where? C3
Where is 1st disc located at? C2-C3
What is located between C1-C2? psuedo disc
There are troughs in the cervical spine. They are open in_____and closed in _______. open: flexion closed: extension
Joint of Luschka restrict what? they promote what? What happens when you get older? SB Promote: flexion/ extension SB decrease bc of the jts of Luschka
Btwn post and ant tubercle where the nerve root run through is called what? uncinate process
What is the articular relationship between C1-C2? What does this relationship promote? convex on convex rotation
What is the articular shape of the occipital condyles? What is the of the superior facets of the atlas ? convex concave
What is the only cervical segment with convex on concave relationship? How many DOF? OA jt 2 (no rotation) just nodding yes
Mia has nice lps Medial inferior anterior Lateral Posterior Superior
What occurs at the OA jt during flexion? ROll anterior Glide posterior (convex on concave rule)
What occurs at the OA jt in extension? Roll posterior slide ant
Where is the longitudinal ligament located?
What does the ligamentum flavum turn into at C1?
Posterior LL turns into what at C1 and C2.
How many jts are between the AA jt? What are they? 3 1-median jt formed by the dens of C2 (synovial jt) & the ant arch of atlas(held by the transverse ligament) 2- lateral jts, the jt surfaces are nearly flat to allow sigROTATION
What is the articulating surface between the AA jt convex on convex(promotes rotation)
Why is the transverse ligament so important? Prevent the den from protruding on the spinal cord.
Is the cavity btwn the dens and the ant tubercle a true jt? No
Jts of Luschka are what type of jt? Why do some not consider them a jt? So what do they call it if its not a jt? Synovial jt bc there is a jt capsule , there is no synovial sheath Pseudo-jt (motion does occur between the two bony surfaces)
Spondylosis: cervical OA or narrowing of the spinal canal
Spondylolysis defect in the pars articularis
Spondylolathesis slippage
Obliques jt angles increase or decrease with successive levels? c2-c3 45 degrees c7-t1 10 degrees angle decrease
What are the facet (apophyseal) jt angle orientation of Cervical Thoracic Lumbar 45 60 90
Transitional area is located where? What is it prone to? C7-T1 dysfxn: w/ forward head posture you continue to move the head foward creating a hinge forward
describes the plane and direction of movement physiological movement osteokinimatics
describes the relative mvnt btwn articular facets of the apophyseal its accessory motion Arthrokinematics
In cervical jt what does the facet jt guide? what does it limit SB and rotation extension
Which mvnts are pure mvnts in the cervical spine? Why? Flexion and extension no secondary motion occurs with them like in SB and rot
Can you have pure rotation? no sidebending will always occur with it
Type I arthrokinematics of the cervical spine: C0-C1 SB and rot occur in opposite directions
Type II C2-7 SB and rot occur in the same direction
What occurs at C1-C2? Why is it just this? Rotation bc the are convex on convex
What ligament become tight in cervical Extension? Loose? ALL PLL, Ligumentum Flacum, lig nuchae,, supraspinous, interpinous
In cervical extension what are C3-C4 doing? What is the superior articulating facet doing> Slide down and back also sliding down and back
What does the OA jt do in extension? rolls back and slides forward
When you go into flexion what is on slack and what is tight? ALL is slack the rest are tight
What happens in SB to the right what occurs? Right side down like in ext closes off and left opens like in flexion up and forward
OA jt has little bit of of SB what saying helps remember the direction of mint? Mia has nice Lps SB to the right the the R side goes medial, inferior, anterior
Where do you see the most rotation C1-C2
Rotation in the typical causes
• with R S.B. and L rotation: R occipital condyle moves what direction MIA (medial, inferior, and anterior) while L occipital condyle moves LPS (lateral, posterior, and superior)
What occurs to the neural foramen with flexion extension rotation flexion: increase extension: decrease Rotation: decrease on the same side increases on the opposite side
Why are C6-c7 not as mobile as the rest of the cervical spine? B/c of the intimate relationship with the thoracic spine
Is cervical and lumbar disc the same? no
Herniations will most like involve what? strain of PLL
What is the disc composed of? Less soft nuclear material it only exist in young adults as we age the nuclear material migrates through horizontal fissures in the annulus
3-dimensional architecture of the cervical annulus fibrosus is more like ______ ___________ ___________ __________ than a ring of fibers surrounding NP anterior interosseous ligament
What are strongly attached to annulus fibrous, weakly attached to the vertebral body Vertebral end plates (sometimes considered part of the disc)
How vertebral bodies similar to the disc what makes the different? chemically similar they have less water
Where is the water located in the end plates? centrally
How does a disc get its nutrients? through the endplates
Lamellae collagen oriented in opposite directions in sheet or bands (lumbar and thoracic spine)
What is the progression of a healthy disc? healthy--> loss of hght/loosening of log--> disc protrusion--> disc degeneration/ osteophytes formation
WHy is ligamentum flavum yellow? has elastin in it to stretch and recoil
Name all the Ligament ALL PLL suprapinous lig ligamentum flavum intertransverse lig
Jefferson's Fx atlas C1
A0 ligament is continuous with articular capsule of c0-c1
Anterior alantoaxial lig continuation of what ALL
Posterior alantoaxial continuation of ligamentum flavum
Ligamentum nuchae thick lig running from the ext occipital protuberance to the SP of C7
Tectorial membrane -continuation of the what posterior to the transverse ligament continuation of PLL
Action of the SCM Contralateral rot ipsalateral SB
What scalene mm attach the 1st rib? what attaches to the 2nd rib what is its insertion what are there actions? Anterior and middle posterior scalene transverse process contralateral rotation (they go in the direction the Vertebral body rotates) ipsalateral sb
What runs through the anterior and middle scalene mm? Brachial Plexus & subclavian artery
What are the deep local neck mm that contribute to spine stability long collie (anterior) long capitus (anterior) semispin cervical (post) multifidis (post)
What the local stabilizers responsible for? control of external loads and ROM
what is the role of the Global mobilizer mms? control of spinal orientation they produce ROM
What is weak in Upper Crossed syndrome deep neck flexors scapular retractor, stabilizer & depressors
What is tight in Upper crossed syndrome? upper trap levator scap pecs
segmental nerve root levels for cervical for thoracic and lumbar cervical : above thoracic : below (b/c of C8 nn)
what are the three critical zone in upper thoracic? 1. Interscalene triangle 2. Costoclavicular space 3. subpectoral triangle
WHat could thoracic outlet be cause from? scalenes or pec minor
Created by: klkoester