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Anatomic relationship terminology

Close to or toward front of body (or organ) Anterior (Ventral)
Toward rear or back of body (or organ) Posterior (Dorsal/Dorsum)
Toward the head. Often used to indicate CR (central Ray) angle Cephalad/Cephalic
Away from the head; directed toward the tail. Often used to indicate CR angle Caudal/Caudad
Closer to the head end or situated above; corresponds to "cranial" (skull) Superior
Away from the head. Corresponds to "caudal" (tail) Inferior
Refers to the mid-area or the main part of an organ Central
Refers to parts at or near the surface, edge, or outer part of a body part Peripheral
Structures near the sides, away from or farther from the midline of the body Lateral
Structures near the midline or median plane Medial
Named according to side of patient closest to IR Lateral Projection
Parts farthest from the point of attachment Distal
Structures close to the point of attachment of the body Proximal
Situated on or near the outside External (Exterior)
Nearer to the center Internal (Interior)
Vertical, upright position Erect
Lying down Recumbent
Entire body or body part is rotated at a certain angle Oblique
Palm (anterior or ventral dide) of hand Palmar (Volar)
Inferior surface (sole) of foot Plantar
Top (anterior) surface of foot. Also refers to back of posterior surface of hand Dorsum/Dorsal
Lateral movement of the arm or leg away from the body Abduct/Abduction
Motion that pulls a structure or part toward the midline of the body, or towards the midline of a limb Adduct/Adduction
Straightening movement that increases the angle between body parts Extension
Forced or excessive extension of a limb or joint Hyperextension
Bending movement that decreases the angle between two parts Flexion
Forced excessive flexion of a limb or joint Hyperflexion
Movement of the foot that flexes the foot or toes downward toward the sole Plantar Flexion
The process of lifting the foot or hand in a direction that draws the fingers or toes closer to the body. Dorsiflexion
Outward turning of foot at the ankle. A lateral eversion of the leg = VALGUS STRESS Evert/Eversion
Inward turning of foot at the ankle. A medial inversion = VARUS STRESS Invert/Inversion
Palm faces down Pronate/Pronation
Palm faces up Supinate/Supination
To turn a body part on its axis Rotation
Rotation toward midline of body Medial/Internal Rotation
Rotation away from midline Lateral/External Rotation
Turning away from the regular course Deviate/Deviation
On one side Unilateral
On both sides Bilateral
Describes path of x-ray beam from where it enters patient to where it exits Projection
X-ray beam enters the front; exits back of patient AP(Antero-Posterior) Projection
X-ray beam enters back of patient; exits front PA(Postero-Anterior) Projection
Perpendicular beam enters one side of body/body part; exits opposite side. Cr is parallel to coronal plane and perpendicular to sagittal plane Lateral Projection
CR entering medial side of an extremity and exiting lateral side of that extremity Mediolateral
CR entering later side of an extremity and exiting medial side of that extremity Lateromedial
Path of beam with an angle of 10 degrees or more Axial Projection
Created by: dawn2000
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