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ap pysch unit 1/2

Socrates and Plato knowledge is innate; mind and body are distinct
Aristotle love of data, knowledge is not preexisting and grows from experience, human knowledge is heavily dependent on sensory experience; mind and body are connected
John Locke mind is blank state "white paper" upon which experience writes
Descartes knowledge is innate; animal spirits; mind and body are distinct
Francis Bacon one of founders of modern science, research on eagerness to selectively notice and remember events that confirm our beliefs, mind's hunger to perceive patterns in random events
empiricism the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should,t therefore, rely on observation and experimentation; John Locke adds on to Francis Bacon's legacy which helps form this idea
structuralism an early school pf psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
introspection (looking inward), self reflective, report elements of experience, sensations, images, feelings; used by Wilhem Wundt
Wilhem Wundt invented first psychology lab in Lepzig, Germany, used introspection
functionalism a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function--how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish--William James invents this , influenced by Charles Darwin
Mary Calkins APA's first female president
Margaret Washburn first female to receive degree in Psychology
William James invented functionalism, wrote first psych textbook, Principles of Psychology
G Stanley Hall worked at Johns Hopkins, first American psychology lab, set up APA
Titchener Wilhem Wudnts student, invents structuralism
psychology the science of behavior and mental processes
nature-nurture issue the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors, innate vs. experience
natural selection the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contribution to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
neuroscience how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
evolutionary how the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes
behavior genetics how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences
psychodynamic how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
behavioral how we learn observable responses
cognitive how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
social-cultural how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
basic research pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
applied research scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
clinical psychology a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
psychiatry a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
free association in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
psychoanalysis Freud's theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
unconscious according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories
id contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding the immediate gratification
ego the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principles, satisfying the id s desires for pleasure rather than pain
superego the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations
psychosexual stages the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id s pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
0edipus complex boys develop both unconscious sexual desires for their mother and jealousy and hatred for their father whom they consider a rival
phallic stages boys seek genital stimulation
identification the process by which according to Freud, children incorporate their parents values into their developing superegos
fixation according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure seeking energies at an early psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unresolved
defense mechanisms in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
repression basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
regression defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
reaction formation psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. thus, many people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety arousing unconscious feelings
projection people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
rationalization self justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one's actions
displacement shifts sexual or aggressive impulses towards a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
projective test a personality test, such as the Rorsarch or TAT, that provides ambiguous stumulu deisnged to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
Thematic Apperception Test TAT a projective tttest in which people express their inner feelings and interests thorugh the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Rorsarch inkblot test most widely used projective tewst, a set of 10 inkblots deisnged by Hermann Rorschacch, seeks to identify people s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
Electra complex oedipus complex for girls
collective unconscious Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
self actualization by Maslow, ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
unconditional positive regard accroding the Rogers an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
inferiority complex by Adler, idea that we still hold onto feelings of inferiority from childhood
self concept all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves in answer to question WHO AM I
traits a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self report inventories and peer reports
factor analysis a statistical procedure that has been used to identify clusters of related items
Myer Briggs Type Indicator influenced by Carl Jung, mirrors declared preferences
MMPI the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. originally developed to identify emoitonal disorders; this test is now used for many other screening purposes; detects lie scale, detects abnormal personality tendencies
empirically derived test a test such as the MMPI developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
BIG 5 emotional stability, agreeableness, openness, extreversion, conscientiousness
Eysencks emotional stability-instability, extraversion-introversion
genes have much to say about temperament and behavioral style that help define our personality
social cognitive perspective views behavior as influenced by interatction between persons and their social context
reciprocal determinism the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
personal control our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless
external locus of control the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
internal locus of control the perception that one controls one's own fate
learned helplessness the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
positive psychology by Martin Seligman, the scientific study of optimal human functioning' aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive
spotlight effect overestimating others noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders
self esteem one's feelings of high or low self worth
self serving bias a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
individualism giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
collectivism giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly)
terror management theory proposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death
barnum effect name given to a type of subjective validation in which a person finds personal meaning in statements that could apply to many people.
Created by: ericakeamy
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