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KIN: Jt Struct/Func

What are the two major types of joints? Synarthrosis and diarthrosis
What are the two synarthrosis joint categories? Fibrous, cartilaginous
What are synarthrosis joints made up of? Interosseus connective tissue
What are the 3 types of fibrous joints? Suture Gomphosis Syndesmosis
Where is the only place to find gomphosis joints? Teeth
What is a suture joint? One in which two bony components are united by a thin layer of dense fibrous tissue
What type of joints are initially moveable and later in life become mostly immovable? Fibrous joints
What do fibrous joints lead to later in life? Bony union call synostosis
What is a gomphosis joint? Joint in which surfaces of bony components are adapted to each other like a peg in a hole
What is a syndesmosis joint? Type of fibrous joint in which two bony components are joined directly by a ligament, a fibrous cord, or aponeurotic membrane
What is an example of a syndesmosis joint? Distal tib/fib joint
What are cartilaginous joints also known as? Amphiarthrotic joints
What are the two types of cartilaginous joints? Symphysis Synchondrosis
What is a symphysis joint? Two bony segments are covered by thin lamina of hyaline cartilage and directly joined by fibrocartilage in the form of disks or plates
What are examples of a symphysis joint? Pubic symphysis, intervertebral joints, manubrium and sternum
How much movement do symphysis joints allow? Limited to moderate amounts of movement
Where do the majority of symphysis joints exist? Near the midline of the body
What are synchondrosis joints? Type of joint in which te material used for connecting the two components is hyaline cartilage
What happens to some synchondrosis joints as bone growth stops? Ossify and convert to bony unions (synostesis)
What is the function of snychondrosis joints? Permits growth while also providing stability and small amounts of mobility
What are diarthrosis joints also called? Synovial joints
What makes synovial joints different from other types of joints and more mobile? The ends of bones are free to move in relation to one another because no cartilaginous tissue directly connects adjacent bony surfaces
What are the layers of the joint capsule in a synovial joint? Stratum synovium Intima Subsynovial tissue Stratum fibrosum
Characteristics of stratum synovium layer Inner layer Highly vascularized
Characteristics of intima layer Layer of cells that line the joint space Composed of synoviocytes
Characteristics of subsynovial tissue Lies outside the intima Highly vascularized fibrous connective tissue Adheres to outer capsule and supports intima
Characteristics of stratum fibrosum Out layer of capsule Composed of dense fibrous tissue Poorly vascularized Richly innervated
Characteristics of synovial fluid Similar to blood plasma, but contains hyaluronic acid and lubricin
What is the function of hyaluronate? Responsible for viscosity of fluid Reduces friction between synovial folds of capsule and joint surface
What is the function of lubricin? Responsible for cartilage-on-cartilage lubrication
What does normal synovial fluid look like? Clear, pale yellow, viscous fluid in small amounts
When bony components are moving rapidly, viscosity of synovial fluid does what? Decreases
When bony compartments are moving slowly, viscosity of synovial fluid does what? Increases
At high temperatures, viscosity of synovial fluid does what? Decreases
At low temperatures, viscosity of synovial fluid does what? Increases
What is a condyloid joint? Joint shaped so that the concave surface of one bony component is allowed to slide over the convex surface of another component in two directions
What is an example of a condyloid joint? MCP joint
What is a saddle joint? Joint in which each joint surface is both convex in one plane and concave in another (fit like a rider on a saddle)
What is an example of a saddle joint? CMC of thumb, sternoclavicular joint
What is an example of a plane joint? Carpals
Characteristics of OKC Motion does not occur in predictable pattern Distal end not in contact with fixed object Often not function
Characteristics of CKC Distal end is fixed Motion occurs in predictable pattern Co-contraction of muscle around joint More functional movements
What is arthrokinematics? Movement of the joint surfaces
What types of movements does arthrokinematics include? Roll, slide, spin (Rock n Slide, Roll n Glide)
What is an ovoid? One surface convex and one concave
What is sellar? Each surface has both convex and concave
When you have a convex on concave surface how does the joint roll and glide? Opposite of one another
When you have a concave on convex surface how does the joint rock and slide? Same as each other
What is osteokinematics? Movement of bones rather than movement of the articular surfaces
How is osteokinematics described? Flex/ext, abd/add, etc
What is the difference between instability and laxity? Instability is a pathology and affects the pt in a negative way
What is a contracture? Extreme hypomobility - LOF
How are the collagen fibers in tendons arranged? Parallel
How are the collagen fibers in ligaments arranged? More varied
What is a bursae? Flat sacs of synovial membrane which contain synovial fluid
Where are subcutaneous bursae found? Between bone and skin
Where are subtendinous bursae found? Between tendon and bone
Where are submuscular bursae found? Between muscle and bone
How does cartilage components differ from tendons and ligaments? Cartilage contains chondrocytes
What is white fibrocartilage and where is it found? Contains type I cartilage. Forms bonding cement in joints that permits little motion IV disks
What is yellow fibrocartilage and where is it found? Contains higher ratio of elastin to collagen and allows more movement Ears and epiglottis
What is the body's hardest connective tissue? Bones
What do osteoblasts do? Lay down bone
What do osteoclasts do? Bone resorption
Where do active and passive insufficiencies occur? Across 2 joint muscles that either lengthen or shorten beyond it's capabilities
What is active insufficiency? Diminished ability of muscle to produce or maintain active tension
When does active insufficiency occur? When a muscle is shortened to a point at which no more sliding of myofilaments occur
What is an example of active insufficieny? Rectus femoris: Knee ext AND hip flex
When does passive insufficiency occur? When in inactive, potentially antagonistic muscle is of insufficient length to permit completion of full ROM
What is an example of passive insufficiency? Hamstrings: Knee ext AND hip flex
Created by: 1185240090



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