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Psych 209 Exam 1

Chapter 1 and 2 test

QuestionAnswer
Seemingly effortless cognition is... Actually complex
Reaction Time The time between presentation of a stimulus and a person's response to it
Donder's reaction time experiment Studied decision making (choice reaction time).
First cog. psych experiments made what assumption? Mental processes could be inferred from the person's behavior
Ebbinghaus' memory experiment Memorized 3-letter nonsense syllables. Memory fades rapidly and then slows.
Wilhelm Wundt Founder of the first laboratory of scientific psychology.
Analytic introspection Training participants to describe their experiences and thoughts when presented with stimuli.
John Watson Introduced behavioralism. Psychology should only focus on observable behavior.
"Little Albert" experiment Conditioning a fear response in a baby with classical conditioning
B.F. Skinner was known for... His research on operant conditioning
Cognitive Map Mental conception of the layout of physical space
Noam Chomsky's and Skinner's conflicting views on how language development occurs Skinner: Learned by imitation and reinforcement when imitation is correct Chomsky: Inborn Programming
Decline in behaviorism was partially due to... Skinner's book "Verbal Behavior"
Donald Broadbent Flow diagram that represented what is happening in the mind: Related to his selective listening experiment
Artificial Intelligence Attempts to make machines that behave in ways similar to human intelligence
Cognitive Psychology Scientific study of the mind
Cognitive Neuroscience The study of the physiological basis of cognition
Memory consolidation The process during which info is strengthened into a strong memory that is resistant to interference
Main structural components of a neuron 1.Cell body 2.Axon 3.Dendrite
Receptors Specialized neural structures that respond to environmental stimuli. Ex. Touch receptors, pain receptors, vision receptors
Synapse The space between the end of an axon and the dendrites or cell body of another neuron
Transduction The transformation of one form of energy into another form of energy
Microelectrode Record electrical activity in a single neuron
Localization of function Specific brain areas are specialized for specific functions. Neurons in different areas of the brain respond best to different stimuli.
Distributed processing Specific functions are processed in many parts of the brain
Occipital lobe Visual information is recieved
Temporal lobe Hearing and identifying objects
Parietal lobe Touch, hot, cold, pain
Frontal lobe Reasoning, voluntary movement, impulse control, language, and attention.
Fusiform face area (FFA) Identifies familiar faces
Prosopagnosia Inablility to recognize familiar faces
Parahippocampal place area (PPA) Activated by indoor and outdoor scenes
Extrastriate body area (EBA) Activated by pictures of bodies and parts of bodies (not faces)
Neural circuits Groups of interconnected neurons which can result in a neuron that responds best to a specific stimulus
Action potentials Electrical potentials that travel down the axon
Changing the intensity of a stimulus presented to a receptor... Increases the rate of firing, not the strength of the action potential
Positron emission tomography (PET) Utilizes radioactive tracer to measure brain activity
Brain imaging techniques can and cant... Can: Determine areas of the brain activated during cognitive tasks. Cant: Determine the structure of individual neurons
Hemoglobin is easily detectable by an fMRI because... The molecules lose oxygen in high brain activity areas which makes them more magnetic.
Broca's area Left frontal lobe. Damage results in slow speech and labored speech.
Wernicke's area Left temporal lobe. Damage results in difficulty understanding speech and speaking understandably.
Feature detectors Neurons that respond to the features that make up objects.
Grandmother cells Responds only to a specifc stimulus. Not supported by cognitive psychologists
4 out of 7 areas that are studied cognitive psychologists Perception Attention Memory Language Knowledge and how it is stored and organized Problem Solving Reasoning and Decision Making
Created by: mustafa2812