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Pharm chpt 2

vocab chpt 2

additive effects drug interactions where affect of a combo of 2 or more drugs w/ similar actions is equal to sum of individual effects of same drugs given alone
adverse drug event undesirable occurance related to admin. or failing to admin. prescribed medication
drug effects physiologic rx of body to drug. Therapeutic or toxic and describe how function of body is affected as a whole by drug. Onset, peak, duration
duration of action length of time the concentration of drug is enough to elicit a response
metabolite chemical form of a drug that is product of one or more biochemical rx of parent drug.
substrates substances on which enzymes act
synergistic effects drug interaction when efect of one or more drugs w/ similar actions is greater than sum of individual effects of same drug given alone
therapeutic drug monitoring measuring drug peak and trough levels to gauge level of patients drug exposure
therapeutic effect desired or intent effect of med
therapeutic index ratio between toxic and therapeutic concentrations of a drug
tolerance reduced response to a drug after prolonged use
toxic being poisonous
toxicity producing adverse bodily effects due to poisonous qualities
toxicology study of poisons including toxic drug effects and applicable treatments
trade name commercial name given to drug product by its manufacturer
trough level lowest concentration after it falls from it's peak
adverse drug reaction unexpected unintended, undesired or excessive response to med given @ therapeutic dosages
adverse effects general term for any undesirable effects that are a response to 1 or more drugs
agonist drug that binds and stimulates activity of receptor
allergic rx immunologic hypersensitivity rx b/c of sensitivity to med. type of adverse drug event
antagonist drug that binds and inhibits activity of receptors
antagonistic effects drug interactions where effect of a combo of 2 or more drugs is less than sum of individual effects of same drug given alone
bioavailability measure of the extent of drug absorption (0%-100%)
biotransformation one or more biochemical rx involving a parent drug. occurs in liver and produces metabolite
blood-brain barrier barrier system that restricts passage of various chemicals and microscopic entities between bloodstream and CNS
chemical name name that describes chemical composition and molecular structure of a drug
contraindication renders a form of treatment improper or undesirable
cytochrome p-450 general name for a large class of enzymes that are involved in drug metabolism
dependence compulsive or chronic need for drug
dissolution solid forms of drugs disintegrate in the GI tract and become soluble before being absorbed
drug chemical that affects physiologic process of a living organism
drug actions cellular processes involved in interaction between drug and body cells
drug induced teratogenesis development of congenital anomalies or defects in developing fetus caused by toxic effect of drugs
drug interaction alteration in the pharmacological activity of given given drug r/t presence of additional drugs. r/t effects on enzymes required for metabolism
first pass effect initial metabolism in liver of a drug absorbed from GI before drug gets to systemic circulation through blood
enzymes protein molecules that catalyze biochemcial rx
generic name name give to drug by us adopted names council. nonproprietary name
half life pharmocokinetics, time required for half of drug to be eliminated by body
idiosyncratic rx abnormal and unexpected response to med
incompatibility characteristic causing 2 parenteral drugs or solutions to undergo a rx when mixed or given together that results in chemical deterioration of at least one drug
intraarticular within a joint
intrathecal within a sheath
medication error preventable adverse drug event involving inappropriate med use by patient or health care provider
medication use process prescribing, dispensing, admin, meds. monitoring effects
onset of action time required for drug to elicit a therapeutic response
parent drug chemical form of drug administered before it is metabolized
peak effect time required for drug to reach max therapeutic response in body
peak level max concentration of drug in body
pharmaceutics science of preparing and dispensing drugs including dosage and design
pharmocodynamics study of biochemical and physiological interactions of drugs at sites of activity. pharmacological interactions with receptors. what DRUG does to the body
pharmacogenetics study of influence of genetics on drug response
pharmacognosy study of drugs obtained from natural plant and animal sources
pharmacokinetics rate of drug distribution among various body compartments. absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion. what BODY does to drug
pharmacology broadest term for study or science of drugs
pharmacotherapeutics treatment of pathological conditions through use of drugs
produrg inactive drug dosage form converted to an active metabolite by biochemical rx
steady state physiological state in which amount of drug removed via excretion is equal to amount absorbed
receptor molecular structure within or on surface of cell. bind specific substances and causes a cellular effect due to drug-receptor interaction
Created by: 520312772