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RAD170 CH16/17

attentuation/pathology

QuestionAnswer
Define attenuation the reduction in photons as the beam passes through a material.
Xrays are attenuated _____. exponentially
Define density the quantity of matter per unit of volume
What are the 4 main elements of the human body & their atomic #s? hydrogen (1) carbon (6) nitrogen (7) oxygen (8)
What are the 4 major substances of the body that cause variable attenuation? air, fat, muscle & bone
What is the approximate atomic number of air? 7.78
What is the approximate atomic number of fat? 6.46
What is the approximate atomic number of muscle? 7.64
What is the approximate atomic number of bone? 12.31
Define pathology the medical science of all aspects of disease
A visible difference requires a change in technical factors of ____%. 25-50
How do additive conditions affect attenuation? How do you compensate? increased attenuation; increase kVp 5-15%
abscess encapsulated infection (additive)
edema swelling (additive)
tumor abnormal tissue growth (additive)
atelectasis collapsed lung (additive)
bronchiectasis dilated bronchi (additive)
cardiomegaly enlarged heart (additive)
congestive heart failure venous congestion in lungs (additive)
empyema pus in thoracic cavity (additive)
pleural effusion fluid in pleural cavity (additive)
pneumoconiosis inhalation of dust causing scarring (additive)
pneumonectomy removal of a lung (additive)
pneumonia inflammation causing fluid in aveolar spaces (additive)
pulmonary edema fluid in lung and alveoli (additive)
tuberculosis infection causing fluid in lungs (additive)
aortic aneurysm dilation of aorta (additive)
ascites fluid in peritoneal cavity (additive)
calcified stones (additive)
cirrhosis enlarged liver (additive)
acromegaly overgrowth of hands, feet, face & jaw (additive)
chronic osteomyelitis bone infection causing new growth (additive)
hydrocephalus enlarged head (additive)
osteoblastic metastases spread of cancer to bone (additive)
osteochondroma tumor in bone and cartilage (additive)
Paget's disease increased bone growth (additive)
sclerosis inflammation & hardening of bone (additive)
How do destructive conditions affect attenuation? How do you compensate? decreased attenuation; decrease mAs 25-50%
anorexia nervosa extreme weight loss (destructive)
atrophy wasting away of tissue (destructive)
emaciation wasting away of tissue (destructive)
emphysema excess air in lung (destructive)
pneumothorax air in pleural cavity (destructive)
aerophagia swallowing of air
bowel obstruction causes accumulation of air & fluid (destructive)
active osteomyelitis infection causing loss of bone tissue (destructive)
aseptic necrosis death of bone tissue (destructive)
carcinoma malignancies in bone (destructive)
degenerative arthritis inflammation causing destruction (destructive)
fibrosarcoma tumor causing "moth-eaten" lesion (destructive)
gout metabolic disease causing bone destruction (destructive)
hyperparathyroidism causes calcium to leave bone (destructive)
multiple myeloma malignant tumor (destructive)
osteolytic metastases destruction of bone (destructive)
osteomalacia defect in bone mineralization (destructive)
osteoporosis defect in bone production (destructive)
Created by: SCash21