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NDT2 Exam 1

Chapter 1, 5, 7, 8 Vocab

Motor Control Ability of the CNS to control or direct the neuromotor system in purposeful mvmt & postural adjustment by selective allocation of muscle tension across appropriate joint segments
Components of motor control Normal muscle tone; Postural response mechanism; Selective mvmt; Coordination
Coordination Ability to execute smooth, accurate, controlled motor responses. Dependent on somatosensory, visual & vestibular input as well as a fully intact neuromuscular system from motor cortex to spinal cord.
Dexterity Skillful use of the fingers during fine motor tasks
Agility ability to rapidly & smoothly initiate, stop, or modify movement while maintaining postural control
Intralimb Coordination movements occurring within a single limb
Interlimb Coordination Integrated performance of 2+ limbs working together
Visual Motor Ability to integrate both visual & motor abilities with the environmental context to accomplish a goal
Eye-Hand Coordination Sub-category of Visual Motor-- movement of head required for eyes to fixate on a target/object
Peripheral Somatic Motor System Muscles, Joints, & their sensory & motor innervations
Central Motor System has how many levels? 3-- Highest, Middle, Lowest
Highest Level of Central Motor System Neocortex & Basal Ganglia- Strategy: goal of the mvmt & the mvmt strategy that will best achieve the goal
Middle Level of Central Motor System Motor Cortex & Cerebellum- Tactics: sequences of muscle contractions, arranged in space & time, required to smoothly & accurately achieve the strategic goal
Lowest Level of Central Motor System Brain stem & Spinal Cord- Execution: activation of the motor neuron & interneuron pools that generate the goal-directed mvmt & make any necessary adjustments of posture
Closed Loop System of cerebellum deals with what? Long duration mvmts; motor cortex & brainstem provide commands for intended motor response (internal feedback); Peripheral/external feedback from mm spindles, GTOs, joint & cutaneous receptors, eyes & ears
Open Loop System of cerebellum deals with what? Stereotypical mvmts (gait activities) or short duration activities; control from motor program which is a memory or pre-programmed pattern of info for coordinated mvmt
What are the 3 main nuclei of the basal ganglia & the 2 sub-cortical nuclei? BG: Caudate nucleus, Putamen, Globus Pallidus Sub-Cortical: Sub-thalamic nucleus & Substantia Nigra
Asthenia Generalized muscle weakness associated with cerebellar lesions
S/sx of Cerebellar Pathology (HAG RANT 6 D's) Hypotonia; Asthenia; Gait ataxia; Rebound phenomenon; Asynergia; Nystagmus; Tremor (Intention or Posture); Dysdiadochokinesia; Dysarthria; Dysphasia; Dysphagia; Dyssynergia; Dysmetria
Test for Dysdiadochokinesia Finger to nose; Pronation/supination; Knee flexion/extension; Walking & Alternating Speed rapidly
Test for Dysmetria Pointing & past pointing; Drawing a circle or figure 8; Heel on shin; Placing feet on floor markers
Test for Dyssynergia Finger to nose; finger to PT nose; Alternate heel to knee; Toe to examiner finger
Test for hypotonia Passive mvmt; DTR's
Test for intention tremor Finger to finger; finger to PT finger; to to PT finger
Test for resting tremor Observe pt at rest; limb or jaw mvmts
Test for postural tremor Observation of steadiness of normal posture; sitting, standing
Test for asthenia Fixation or position holding (UE/LE); application of manual resistance to determine ability to hold
Test for rigidity Passive mvmt; Observation during mvmt & rest
Test for bradykinesia Walking observation of arm swing & trunk motions; stop gait abruptly; timed tests
Test for disturbances of posture Fixation or holding position (UE/LE); displace balance unexpectedly in sitting or standing; alter BoS
Test for gait disturbances Walk along in straight line; walk sideways/backwards; march in place; alter speed & direction of mvmt; walk in a circle
S/sx of BG Pathology Akinesia; Athetosis; Bradykinesia; Chorea; Choreoathetosis; Dystonia; Hemiballism (Hyper/Hypokinesis); Rigidity (Leadpipe/Cogwheel); Tremor (resting-non-intention)
What 5 categories is movement capabilities categorized into? Alternate/Reciprocal Motion; Mvmt composition; Mvmt accuracy; Fixation/Limb holding; Equilibrium (postural stability)
Alternate/Reciprocal Motion Ability to reverse mvmt b/t opposing muscle groups
Mvmt Composition Mvmt control achieved by mm groups acting together
Mvmt Accuracy Ability to gauge or judge distance & speed of voluntary mvmt
Fixation/Limb Holding Ability to hold position of an individual limb/limb segment
Equilibrium (Postural Stability) Ability to maintain balance in response to alteration in center of gravity/base of support
Non-Equilibrium Testing (Seated [Gross or Fine Motor]) Finger to nose; Finger to PT finger; Finger to finger; Alternate nose to finger; Pronation/Supination; Rebound test; Pointing/Past pointing; Alternate heel to knee/toe; Toe to examiner's finger; Heel on shin; Draw circle/figure 8; Fixation/position hold
Equilibrium Coordination Testing (Standing [Gross Motor]) Stand feet together, tandem, one foot; Perturbations; Standing- EO to EC (tandem also); Tandem walk; Walk in straight line, sideways, backwards, cross-step; March; Vary walking speed; Stop & start; Walk in a circle
Motor Skills Learned through interaction & exploration of the environment defined by practice & feedback
Motor Program An abstract representation that when initiated results in the production of a coordinated mvmt sequence; guided & shaped by sensory info
Motor Plan- Complex Motor Program Idea or plan for purposeful mvmt that is made up of several component motor programs
Motor Memory- Procedural Memory Recall of motor programs or sub-routines & includes info on: Initial mvmt conditions How mvmt felt, looked, sounded (sensory) Specific mvmt parameters Outcome of the mvmt
Neuroplasticity Capacity of the brain to adapt to injury through mechanisms of repair & change; allows for change from ST memory to LT
Motor Learning Internal processes associated with practice or experience leading to relatively permanent changes in the capability for skilled behavior
Feedback Response-produced info received during or after the mvmt & is used to monitor output for corrective actions
Feedforward Sending of signals in advance of mvmt to ready the sensorimotor systems to allow for anticipatory adjustments in postural activity
Coordinative Structures Fxnally specific units of mm's & joints that are constrained by the nervous system to act cooperatively to produce an action
Full Consciousness Alert & aware, implies orientation x3 (person, place, time)
Lethargy General slowing of motor processes, including speech & mvmt
Obtundation Dulled/blunted sensitivity; Difficult to arouse, confused
Stupor (Semicoma) State of unconsciousness; lacks responsiveness, only aroused with noxious stimuli
Coma Unconscious; No sleep/wake cycle
If pupils bilaterally small, this indicates what? Damage to sympathetic pathway in ypothalamus or metabolic encephalopathy
If pt has pinpoint pupils, this indicates what? Hemorrhagic pontine lesion or narcotic OD
If pupils fixated in midline & dilated, what is indicated? Midbrain Damage
If pupils large bilaterally fixed & dilated, what is indicated? Severe anoxia or drug toxicity
If only 1 pupil fixed & dilated, what does this mean? Temporal lobe herniation with compression of oculomotor nerve
Postural Orientation Control of the relative positions of body parts by skeletal mm's with respect to each other & gravity
Static Postural Control ability to maintain postural stability & orientation with the CoM over the BoS & the body at rest
Dynamic Postural Control ability to maintain postural stability & orientation with the CoM over the BoS while parts of the body are in motion
Skill ability to consistently perform coordinated mvmt sequences for the purposes of investigation & interaction with the physical & social environment
Focal Vision Cognitive/Explicit; localizing vision
Ambient Vision Sensorimotor or implicit vision; entire visual field
Optic Ataxia can recognize object (focal vision intact) but can't use vision to accurately guide his hand to grasp object (impaired ambient vision)
Transfer Tests Gain or loss in the capability for performance in one task as a result of practice or experience on some other task; Transfer or motor learning is greatest when tasks practiced are similar to ones you want pt to do later or on his own
Generalizability Extent to which practice on one tasks contributes to performance of other, related skills; Performing one type of transfer helps with completion of others
Resistance to contextual change Adaptability required to perform a motor task in altered environmental situations; Closed vs. Open environment
Created by: 1190550002



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