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RSC- 125 CHAPTER 5

Stack #99150

QuestionAnswer
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF BLOOD FLOW TO DELIVER OXYGEN TO THE CELLS OF THE BODY
WHAT DOES THE CIRCUALTORY SYSTEM CONSISTS OF BLOOD, HEART(PUMP) AND VASCULAR SYSTEM
WHAT LIQUED SUBSTANCE BLOOD AND NUMEROUS SPECIALIZED CELLS SUSPENDED IN PLASMA
WHAT CELLS IN THE PLASMA INCLUDE ERYTHROCYTES ( RED BLOOD CELLS), LEUKOCYTES( WHTIE BLOOD CELLS) ADN THROMBOCYTES( PLATELETS )
CELL FRAGMENTS ARE ACTUALLY THROMBOCYTES
IN A HEALTH ADULT HOW MANY RED BLOOD CELLS ARE THERE 5 MILLION ( RBC) IN EACH CUBIC MILLIMETER OF BLOOD( mm3)
HOW MANY RED BLOOD CELLS ARE IN A HEALTHY ADULT WOMEN 4 MILLION RBC/mm3
WHAT IS THE PERCENTAGE OF RBC IN RELATION TO THE TOTAL BLOOD VOLUME HEMATOCRIT
WHAT IS THE NORMAL HEMATOCRIT OF A ADULT MAN APPROXIMATELY 45 PERCENT
WHAT IS THE NORMAL HEMATOCRIT OF A ADULT WOMAN APPROXIMATELY 42 PERCENT
WHAT IS THE NORMAL HEMATOCRIT RANGE FOR NEWBORNS 45 PERCENT AND 60 PERCENT
MICROSCOPICALLY THE RBC APPEAR AS WHAT? BICONCAE DISCS
WHAT IS THE AVERAGE SIZE AND THICKNESS OF THE RBC'S 7.5 DIAMETER ADN 2.5 THICKNESS
WHERE ARE RBC PRODUCED RED BONE MARROW IN THE SPONGY BONE OF THE CRANIUM, BODIES OF VERTEBRAE, RIBS, STERNUM ADN PROXIMAL EPIPHYSES OF THE HUMERUS AND FEMUR
WHAT IS THE RATE OF WHICH RBC ARE PRODUCED 2 MILLION PER SECOND
WHERE ARE THE RBC DESTROYED SPLEEN AND LIVER
WHAT IS THE LIFE SPAN OF RBC 120 DAYS
WHAT IS THE MAJOR CONSTITUENT OF THE RBC'S HEMOGLOBIN
WHAT IS THE PRIMARY SUBSTANCE FOR THE TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN ADN CARBON DIOXIDE HEMOGLOBIN
WHAT IS THE PRIMARY FUNCTION OF THE LEUKOCYTES OR WHITE BLOOD CELLS TO PROTECT AGANIST BACTERIA , VIRUS, PARASITES, TOXINS, AND TUMORS
ARE LEUKOCYTES LESS NUMEROUS THAN RBC TRUE OR FALSE TRUE
WHAT IS THE AVERAGE AMOUNT OF RBC 4000 AND 11,000CELLS/MM
WHERE ARE RBC CONFINED BLOODSTREAM
THE WBC ARE ABLE TO LEAVE THE CAPILLARY BLOOD VESSELS BY WHICH PROCESS____WHEN NEED FOR INFLAMMATORY OR IMMUNE RESPONSE DIAPEDESIS
WHAT IS ACTIVATED BY A CHEMICAL SIGNAL RELEASED BY THE DAMAGED CELLS ( POSTIVE CHEMOTAXIS) DIAPEDESIS
WHAT IS THE DAMAGED CELLS CHEMICAL THAT ACTIVATES DIAPEDSIS POSTIVE CHEMOTAXIS
ONCE OUT OF THE BLOOD STREAM, THE LEUKOCYTES FORM CYTOPLASMIC EXTENSIONS THAT MOVE THEM ALONG THROUGH THE TISSURE SPACES TOWARD THE DAMAGED CELLS CALLED AMOEBOID MOTION
A WBC COUNT GREATER THAN 11000 CELLS/mm3 IS CALLED LEUKOCYTOSIS
WHEN THE CONDITION OF INCREASED WBC SEEN BACTERIAL OR VIRAL INFECTIONS
WHAT TWO CATERGORIES ARE LEUKOCYTES GROUPED AS GRANULOCYTES AND AGRANULOCYTES
____WHICH INCLUDE THE NEUTROPHILS, BASOPHILS, EOSINOPHILS, ARE SPHERICAL IN SHAPE AND MUCH LARGER THAN ERYTHOROCYTES GRANULOCYTES
____ARE THE MOST NUMEROUS OF THE WBCs NEUTROPHILS
NEUTROPHILS CONTAIN SMALL GRANULES THAT PRODUCE POTENT ANTIBIOTIC-LIKE PROTEINS CALLED DEFENSINS
___ARE FOUND AT INFLAMATION SITES CAUSED BY BACTERIA AND SOME FUNGI, WHICH INGEST ADN DESTROY DEFENSINS
NEUTROPHILS KILL BACTERIA BY MEANS OF A PROCESS CALLED RESPIRATORY BUST
____LESSEN THE SEVERITY OF ALLERGIES BY PAHGOCYTIZING IMMUNE ( ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY) COMPLEXES INVOLVED IN ALLERGIC ATTACKS EOSINOPHILS
EOSINOPHILS ACCOUNT FOR ___% OF ALL LEUKOCYTES 1-4
___ALSO COMBAT ALLERGIC REACTIONS BASOPHILS
BASOPHILS ARE THE SMALLEST GROUP OF WBCs ACCOUNTING FOR ___% OF THE LEUKOCYTE POPULATION 1
____IS AN INFLAMMATORY SUBSTANCE THAT CAUSES VASODILATION AND ATTRACTS OTHER WBCs TO THE INFLAMED SITE HISTAMINE
___, WHICH INCLUDE THE LYMPHOCYTES AND MONOCYTES, LACK CYTOPLASMIC GRANULES AGRANULOCYTES
___NUCLEI ARE TYPICALLY SHERICAL OR KIDNEY SHAPED AGRANULOCYTES
___SECOND MOST NUMEROUS LEUKOCYTES IN THE BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES
MOST OF THER LYMPOCYTES ARE FOUND IN THE ____WHERE THEY PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN IMMUNITY LYMPHOID TISSUES ( LYMPH NODES)
_____FUNCTION IN THE IMMUNE RESPONSE BY ACTING DIRECTLY AGANIST VIRUS-INFECTED CELLS AND TUMORS T LYMPHOCYTES ( T-CELLS)
____GIVE RISE TO PLASMA CELLS, WHICH PRODUCE ANTIBODIES THAT WORK TO INACTIVEATE INVADING ANTIGENS B-LYMPHOCYTES ( B-CELLS)
WHAT IS ANOTHER NAME FOR ANTIBODIES IMMUNOGLOBULINS
MONOCYTES ACCOUNT FOR ___%OF WBCs 4-8
IN THE TISSUE___DIFFERENTIATE INTO HIGHLY MOBLE ____ WITH LARGE APPETITES MONOCYTES, MACROPHGES
____ARE ALOS EFFECTIVE AGAINST VIRUSES AND CERTAIN INTRACELLUAL BACTERIAL PARASITES MONOCYTES
____ARE THE SMALLEST OF THE FORMED ELEMENTS IN THE PLASMA THROMBOCYTES OR BLOOD PLATELETS
WHAT IS THE NORMAL PLATELET COUNT RANGES 150,000-400,00 AND 250,000 ADN 500,000
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF PLATELETS TO PREVENT BLOOD LOSS FROM A TRAUMATIZED AREA OF THE BODY INVOLVING THE SMALLEST BLOOD VESSELS
WHAT IS THE SUBSTANCE ACTIVATED WHEN THE BODY IS TRAUMATIZZED PLATELET FACTOR
____IS A STICY SUBSTANCE THAT CAUSES BLOOD CLOTTING AT THE TRAUMATIZED SITE PLATELET FACTOR
THE PLATELETS ALSO CONTAIN ____WHICH, WHEN RELEASED, CAUSES SMOOTH MUSCLES CONTRICTION AND REDUCED BLOOD FLOW SEROTONIN
WHEN ALL THE CELLS ARE REMOVED FROM THE BLOOD, A STRAW COLORED LIQUID CALLED ___ PLASMA REMAINS
PLASMA CONSTITUES ABOUT ___% OF THE TOTAL BLOOD VOLUME 55
WHAT ___% OF PLASMA CONSISTS OF WATER 90
THE REMAIN 10 PERCENT OF PLASMA IS COMPOSED OF WHAT PROTEINS, ELECTROLYTES, FOOD SUBSTANCES, RESPIRATORY GASES, HORMONES, VITAMINS, AND WASTE PRODUCTS
THE ___IS A HOLLOW FOUR CHAMBERED MUSCULAR ORGAN THAT CONSISTS OF THE UPPER RIGHT AND LEFT ATRIA AND THE LOWER RIGHT AND LEFT VENTRICLES HEART
THE ___IS SEPERATED BY A THIN MUSCULAR WALLINTERATRIAL SEPTUM ATRIA
THE ATRIA ARE SEPERATED BY A THIN MUSCULAR WALL CALLED __ INTERTRIAL SEPTUM
___ ARE SEPEATED BY A THICK MUSCULAR WALL CALL THE INTEVENTRICULA SEPTUM VENTRICLES
THE VENTRICLES ARE SEPERATED BY A THICK MUSCULAR WALL CALLED ___ INTERVENTRICULAR SEPTUM
THE HEART ACTUALLY FUNCTIONS AS TWO SEPERATE PUMPS
______ACT AS ONE PUMP TO PROPEL UNOXYGENATED BLOOD TO THE LUNGS RIGHT ATRIUM AND VENTRICLE
______ACT AS ANOTHER PUMP TO PROPEL OXYGENATED BLOOD THROUGHOUT THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION LEFT ATRIUM AND VENTRICLE
WHAT ARE SMALL THIN WALLED CHAMBERS ATRIA AND VENTRICLES
WHAT IS THE SHAPE OF THE HEART CONE-SHAPED STRUCURE
WHAT IS THE WEIGHT OF THE HEART 250 AND 350 G
THE HEART IS ENCLOSED IN THE _____ EXTENDS OBLIQUELY BETWEEN THE ___RIB AND __ INTERCOSTAL SPACE MEDIASTINUM, SECOND, FIFTH
THE HEART REST ON ___SURFACE OF THE ___, ANTERIOR TO THE ___COLUMN ADN POSTERIOR TO THE ___ SUPERIOR, DIAPHRAGM, VERTEBRAL
THE LEFT ADN RIGHT LATERAL PORTION OF THER HEART ARE FLANKED BY THE LUNGS
APPROXIMATELY __- OF THE HEART LIES TO THE ___ OF THE MIDSTERNAL LINE THE BALANCE EXTENDS TO THE RIGHT 2/3 , LEFT
THE ___ OF THE HEART IS BROAD AND FLAT ABOUT 9 CM AND POINTS TOWARD THE RIGHT SHOULDER BASE
THE ___POINTS INFERIORLY TOWARD THER LEFT HIP APEX
THE HEART BEAT CAN BE FELT WHERE BETWEEN THE FIFTH AND SIXTH RIBS, BELOW LEFT NIPPLE, WHERE THE APEX IS IN CONTACT WITH THE INTERNAL CHEST WALL
POINT OF MAXIMAL INTENSITY (PMI) THE SITE OF WHERE THE HEART BEAT CAN BE FELT
THE HEART IS ENCLOSED IN A DOUBLE-WALLED SAC CALLED PERICARDIUM
THE OUTER WALL, THE____IS A TOUGH, DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE LAYER FIBROUS PERICARDIUM
WHAT IS THE PRIMARY FUNCTION OF THE FIBROUS PERICARDIUM 1. TO PROTEC THE HEART 2. ANCHOR THE HEART TO SURROUNDING STRUCTURES SUCH AS THE DIAPHRAGM AND GREAT VESSELS 3. PREVENT THE HEART FROM OVERFILLING
THE INNER WALL, THE ___, IS A THIN, SLIPPERY, SEROUS MEMBRANE SEROUS PERICARDIUM
THE SEROUS PERICARDIUM IS COMPOSED OF TWO LAYERS____ THE PARIETAL LAYER AND THE VISCERAL LAYER
___LINES THE INTERNAL SURFACE OF THER PERICARDIUM PARIETAL LAYER
____IS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE HEART OFTEN DESCRIBED AS THE OUTERMOST LAYER OF THE HEART VISCERAL LAYER ( EPICARDIUM)
WHAT IS THE VISCERAL LAYER ALSO CALLED EPICARDIUM
WHAT ALLOWS THE PARIETAL AND VISCERAL MEMBRANES TO GLIDE SMOOTHLY AGAINST ONE ANOTHER, WHICH IN TURN PERMITS THER HEART TO WORK IN A RELATIVELY FRICTION-FREE ENVIRONMENT FILM OF SEROUS FLUID BETWEEN THE TWO LAYERS OF THER SEROUS PERICARDIUM
THE HEART WALL IS COMPOSED OF THE FOLLOWING 3 LAYERS 1. EPICARDIUM (VISCERAL PERICARDIUM) 2. MYOCARDIUM 3. ENDOCARDIUM
___OF THE PERICARDIUM IS COMPOSED OF A SINGLE SHEET OF SQUAMOUS EITHELIAL CELLS OVERLYING DLICATE CONNECTIVE TISSUE EPICARDIUM (VISCERAL LAYER)
---IS A THICH CONTRACTILE MIDDLE LAYER OF UNIQUELY CONSTRUCTED AND ARRANGED MUSCLE CELLS MYOCARDIUM
WHAT IS THE LAYER OF THE HEART THAT ACTUALLY CONTACTS MYOCARDIUM
____OF THER MYOCARDIUM IS COMPOSED OF FIBERS WITH THE CAHARCTERISTIC CROSS-STRIATIONS OF MUSCULAR TISSUE CONTRACTILE TISSUE
___ARE INTERCONNECTED TO FORM A NETWORK SPIRAL OR CIRCULAR BUNDLES CARDIAC MUSCLE CELLS
COLLECTIVELY, THE SPIRAL BUNDLES FORM A DENSE NETWORK CALLED FIRBROUS SKELETON OF THE HEART
____REINFORCES THER INTERNAL PORTION OF THER MYOCARDIUM FIBROUS SKELETON OF THER HEART
___IS A GLISTENING WHITE SHEET OF SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM THAT RESTS ON A THIN, CONNECTIVE TISSUE LAYER ENDOCARDIUM
WHAT IS LOCATED IN THER INNER MYOCARDIAL SURFACE AND LINES THER HEART'S CHAMBERS ENDOCARDIUM
THE ___CONTAINS SMALL BLOOD VESSELS AND A FEW BUNDLES OF SMOOTH MUSCLES ENDOCARDIUM
___IS CONTIUOUS WITH THE ENDOTHELIUM OF THE GREAT BLOOD VESSELS- THER SUPERIOR ADN INFERIOR VENA CAVA ENDOCARDIUM
THE BLOOD SUPPLY OF THE HEART ORIGINATES DIRECTLY FROM THER AORTA BY MEANS OF TWO ARTERIES LEFT CORONARY ARTERY ADN THE RIGHT CORONARY ARTERY
THE LEFT CORNARY ARTERY DIVEDES IN THE ___ AND THE ____ CIRCUMFLEX BRANCH, ANTERIOR INTERVENTIRICULAR BRANCH
THE ___RUNS POSTERIORLY ADN SUPPLEIS THE LEFT ATRIUM AND THE POSTERIOR WALL OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE CIRCUMFLEX BRANCH
___TRAVELS TOWARD THE APEX OF THE HEART ADN SUPPLIES THE ANTERIOR WALLS OF BOTH VENTRICLES AND THE INTERVENTRICULAR SEPTUM ANTERIOR INTERVENTRICULAR BARANCH
THE RIGHT CORNARY ARTERY SUPPLIES THER ATRIUM ADN THEN DIVIDES INTO THE ____ MARGINAL BRANCH, AND POSTERIOR INTERVENTRICULAR
THE ___SUPPLIES THE LATERAL WALLS OF THE RIGHT ATRIUM AND RIGHT VENTRICLE MARGINAL BRANCH
THE ___SUPPLIES THE POSTERIOR WALL OF BOTH VENTRICLES POSTERIOR INTERVENTRICULAR BRANCH
WHAT IS PARALLELS THE CORONARY ARTERIES OF THE HEART VENOUS SYSTEM
VENOUS BLOOD FROM THE ANTERIOR SIDE OF THE HEART EMPTIES INTO THE ____ GREAT CARDIAC VEINS
VENOUS BLOOD FROM THE POSTERIOR PORTION OF THE HEART IS COLLECTED BY THE ___ MIDDLE CARDIAC VEIN
THE ___AND __MERGE ADN EMPTY INTO A LARGE VENOUS CAVITY WITHIN THER POSTERIOR WALL OF THER RIGHT ATRIUM CALLED THER CORNARY SINUS THE GREAT ADN MIDDLE CARDIAC VEINS
WHAT IS THE LARGE VENOUS CAVITY WITHIN THE POSTEIOR WALL OF THE RIGHT ATRIUM CALLED CORNONARY SINUS
A SMALL AMOUNT OF VENOUS BLOOD IS COLLECT BY THE ___ THEBESIAN VEIN
THE ___EMPTIES DIRECTLY INTO BOTH THE RIGHT AND LEFT ATRIUM THEBESIAN VEIN
THE ----THAT FLOWS INTO THE LEFT ATRIUM CONTRIBUTES TO THE NORMAL ANATOMIC SHUNT, THE PHENOMENON WHEREBY, OXYGENATED MIXES WITH DEOXYGENATED BLOOD VENOUS DRAINAGE
THE RIGHT ATRIUM RECEIVES VENOUS BLOOD FROM THE __- INFERIOR VENA CAVA AND SUPERIOR VENA CAVA
A SMALL AMOUNT OF CARDIAC VENOUS BLOOD ENTERS THE RIGHT ATRIUM BY MEANS OF THE ___ THEBESIAN VEIN
WHAT BLOOD IS LOW IN OXYGEN AND HIGH IN CARBON DIOXIDE THE BLOOD RECEIVED BY THE RIGHT ATRIUM BY MEAS OF THE THEBESIAN VEIN
A ONE-WAY VALVE, THE ___, LIES BETWEEN THE RIGHT ATRIUM AND THE RIGHT VENTRICLE TRICUSPID VALVE
THE ___GETS IT NAME FROM ITS THREE VALVE LEAFLETS OR CUSPS TRICUSPID VALVE
THE TRICUSPID LEAFLETS ARE HELD IN PLACE BY TENDINOUS CORDS CALLED CHORDAE TENDINAE
THE ___, WHICH ARE SECURED TO THE VENTRICULAR WALL BY THE PAPILLARY MUSCLES CHORDAE TENDINAE
THE CHORDAE TENDINAE, WHICH ARE SECURED TO THE VENTRICULAR WALL BY THE __- PAPILLARY MUSCLES
WHEN THE VENTRICLES CONTRACT,T HE TRICUSPIKD VALVE CLOSES AND BLOOD LEAVES THE RIGHT VENTRICLE THROUGH ___ PULMONARY TRUNK
WHEN THE VENTRICLES CONTRACT, THE TRICUSPID VALVE CLOSES AND BLOOD LEAVES THE RIGHT VENTRICLE THROUGH THE PULMONARY TRUNK AND ENTERS THE LUNGS BY WAY OF RIGHT ADN LEFT ___ PULMONARY ARTERIES
THE ___SEPERATES THE RIGHT VENTRICLE FROM THE PULMONARY TRUNK PULMONARY SEMILUNAR VALVE
AFTER THE BLOOD PASSES THROUGH THE LUNGS, IT RETURNS TO THE LEFT ATRIUM BY WAY OF THE ___ PULMONARY VEINS
TEH RETURNING BLOOD FROM THE PULMONARY VEINS IS ___IN OXYGEN AND __IN CARBON DIOXIDE HIGH, LOW
THE ___ALSO CALLED ___LIES BETWEEN THE LEFT ATRIUM AND THE LEFT VENTRICLE BICUSPID VALVE , MITRAL VALVE
THE ___CONSIST OF TWO CUSPS, PREVENTS BLOOD FROM RETRUNING TO THE LEFT ATRIUM DURING VENTRICULAR CONTRACTION BISCUSPID, MITRAL VALVE
WHAT IS HELD IN PLACE BY THE CHORDAE TENDINAE AND PAPILLARY MUSCLES TRICUSPID VALVE, THE BICUSPID VALVE
THE LEFT VENTRICLE PUBPS BLOOD THROUGH THE ASCENDING ___ AORTA
THE ___, WHICH LIES AT THE BASE OF THER ASCENDING AORTA, HAS SEMILUNAR CUSPS ( VALVES) THAT CLOSE WHEN THE VENTRICLES RELAX AORTIC VALVE
THE CLOSURE OF THE ___PREVENT THE BACKFLOW OF BLOOD INTO THE LEFT VENTRICLE SEMILUNAR VALVES
THE VASCUALR NETWORK OF THER CIRCULARTORY SYSTEM IS COMPOSED OF TWO MAJOR SUBDIVISIONS THE SYSTEMIC SYSTEM AND THE PULMONRY SYSTEM
THE ___BEGINS WITH THE PULMONARY TRUNK AND ENDS IN THE LEFT ATRIUM PULMONARY SYSTEM
THE ___BEGINS WITH THE AORTA AND ENDS IN THE RIGHT ATRIUM SYSTEMIC SYSTEM
THE SYSTEMIC SYSTEM AND THE PULMONARY SYSTEMS ARE COMPOSED OF _____ ARTERIES, ARTERIOLES, CAPILLARIES, VENULES ADN VEINS
____ARE VESSELS THAT CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM THE HEART ARTERIES
THE ___ARE STRONG ELASTIC VESSELS THAT ARE WELL SUITED FOR CARRYING BLOOD UNDER HIGH PRESSURE IN THE SYSTEMIC SYSTEM ARTERIES
THE ARTERIES SUBDIVIDE AS THEY MOVE AWAY FROM THE HEART INTO SMALLER VESSELS AND EVENTUALLY INTO VESSELS CALLED__- ARTERIOLES
ARTERIOLES PLAY A MAJOR ROLE IN THE DISTRUBUTION AND REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE AND REFERRED TO AS THE ____ RESISTANCE VESSELS
GAS EXCHANGE OCCURS IN THE ____ CAPILLARIES
IN THE CAPALLARIES OF THE PULMONARY SYSTEM, GAS EXCHANGE IS CALLED ___ EXTERNAL RESPIRATION
_____GAS EXHANGE BETWEEN BLOOD ADN AIR EXTERNAL RESPIRATION
IN THE CAPALLARIES OF THE SYSTEMIC SYSTEM, GAS EXCHANGE IS CALLED ____ INTERNAL RESPIRATION
____GAS EXCHANGE BETWEEN BLOOD AND TISSUES INTERNAL RESPIRATION
THE ___ARE TINY VEINS CONTINUOUS WITH THE CAPILLARIES VENULES
THE ___EMPTY INTO THE VEINS, WHICH CARRY BLOOD BACK TO THE HEART VENULES
THE ___DIFFER FROM THE ___IN THAT THEY ARE CAPABLE OF HOLDING A LARGE AMOUNT OF BLOOD WITH VERY LITTLE PRESSURE CHANGE VEINS, ARTERIES
THE VEINS DIFFER FROM THE ARTERIES IN THAT THEY ARE CAPABLE OF HOLDING A LARGE AMOUNT OF BLOOD WITH VERY LITTLE PRESSURE CHANGE. BECAUSE OF THIS UNIQUE FEATURE, THE VEINS ARE CALLED ____ CAPACITANCE VESSELS
WHERE ARE THE SYSYPATHETIC FIBERS FOUND ARTERIES, ATERIOLES AND TO LESSER DEGREE THE VEINS
THE ___, WHICH IS LOCATED IN THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA, GOVERNS THE NUMBER OF SYMPATHETIC IMPULSES SENT TO THE VASCULAR SYSTEM VASOMOTOR CENTER
THE VASOMOTOR CENTER TRANSMITS A CONTIUAL STREAM OF SYMPATHETIC IMPULSES TO THE BLOOD VESSELS, MAINTAINING THE VESSELS IN A MODERATE STATE OF CONSTRICTION ALL THE TIME. WHAT IS THE STATE OF VASCULAR CONTRACTION CALLED ___ VASOMOTOR TONE
THE VASOMOTOR CENTER COORDINATES BOTH ___ ADN ___BY CONTROLLING THE NUMBER OF SYMPATHETIC IMPULSES THAT LEAVE THE MEDULLA VASOCONSTRICTION AND VASODILATION
WORKING TOGETHER, THE VASOMOTOR CENTER AND THE CARDIAC CENTERS IN THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA REGULATE THE ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE IN RESPONSE TO SIGNALS RECEIVED FROM SPECIAL PRESSURE RECEPTORS LOCATED THROUGHOUT THE BODY THESE PRESSURE RECEPTORS ARE CALLED ARTERIAL BAROCECEPTORS
SPECIALIZED STRETCH RECEPTORS CALLED ___ARE LOCATED IN THE WALLS OF THER CAROTID ARTERIES AND THE AORTA BARORECEPTORS ALSO CALLED PRESSORECEPTORS
IN THE ___, THE BARORECEPTORS ARE FOUND IN THE CARTOID SINUSES LOCATED HIGH IN THE NECK WHERE THE COMMON CAROTIOD ARTERIES DIVIDE INTO THE EXTERNAL AND INTERANAL CAROTID ARTERIES CAROTID ARTERIES
THE AFFERENT FIBERS FROM THE CAROTID SINUSES TRAVEL WITH THE ___(NINTH CRANIAL) TO THE MEDULLA GLOSSOPHRYNGEAL NERVE
IN THE AORTA THE BARORECEPTORS ARE LOCATED IN THE ___ AORTIC ARCH
THE AFFERENT FIBERS FROM THE AORTIC ARCH BARORECEPTORS TRAVEL WITH THE ___ VAGUS NERVE ( TENTH CRANIAL)
THE ___REGUALTE THE ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE BY INITIATING REFLEX AND ADJUSTMENTS TO CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE BARORECEPTORS
WHEN THE MEDULLA INCREASES ITS SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY,WHICH IN TURN CAUSES AN INCREASE IN THE FOLLOWING ___ HEART RATE, MYOCARDIAL FORCE OF CONTRACTION, ATERIAL CONSTRICTION, VENOUS CONSTRICTION
AN INCREASE IN THE SYMPATHIC ACTIVITY WILL RESULTS IN 1.INCREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT (BECAUSE OF INCREASED HEART RATE AND VOLUME) 2 TOTAL PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE( INDUCED BY ATERIAL CONSTRICTION) 3. THE RETURN OF BLOOD PRESSURE TOWARD NORMAL
THE VASCUAL CONSTRICTION OCCURS PRIMARLY IN THE ABDOMAINL REGION INCLUDING ___ LIVER, SPLEEN, PANCREAS, STOMACH, INTESTINE, KIDNEYS, SKIN, AND SKELETAL MUSCLES
WHEN THE BLOOD PRESSURE INCREASES THE NEURAL IMPULESE FROM THE ___INCREASES ARTERIAL BARORECEPTORS
THE BARORECEPTORS FUNCTION AS _____REGULATORS OF ATERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE SHORT TERM
BARORECEPTORS ARE ALSO FOUND IN THE ___ LARGE ARTERIES, LARGE VEINS, AND PULMONARY VESSELS AND THE CARDIAC WALLS
WHAT ARE THE 3 DIFFERENT TYPES OF PRESSURES USED TO STUDY THE BLOOD FLOW INTRAVASCULAR, TRASMURAL AND DRIVING
____IS THE ACTUAL BLOOD PRESSURE IN THE LUMEN OF ANY VESSEL AT ANY POINT, RELATIVE TO THE BAROMETRIC PRESSURE INTRAVASCUALR PRESSURE
INTRAVASCULAR PRESSURE IS THE ACTUAL BLOOD PRESSURE IN THE LUMEN OF ANY VESSEL AT ANY POINT, RELATIVE TO THE BAROMETRIC PRESSURE. THIS PRESSURE IS KNOWN AS THE INTRALUMINAL PRESSURE
___ IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE INTRVASCULAR PRESSURE OF A VESSEL AND THE PRESSURE SURROUNDING THE VESSEL. TRANSMURAL PRESSURE
THE TRANSMURAL PRESSURE IS ____WHEN THE PRESSURE INSIDE THE VESSEL EXCEEDS THE PRESSURE OUTSIDE THE VESSEL AND __WHEN THE PRESSURE INSID THE VESSEL IS LESS THAN THE PRESSURE SURROUNDING THE VESSEL POSTIVE ;NEGATIVE
___IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE PRESSUR AT ONE POINT IN A VESSEL AND THE PRESSURE AT ANY OTHER POINT DOWNSTREAM IN THE VESSEL DRIVING PRESSURE
THE ____RISES ADN FALLS IN A PATETERN THAT CORRESPONDS TO THE PHASES OF THE CARDIAC CYCLE ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE
WHEN THE VENTRICLE CONTRACT ___BLOOD IS FORCED INTO THE PULMONARY ARTERY AND THE AORTA, AND THE PRESSURE IN THESE ARTERIES RISES SHARPLY VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE
THE MAXIMUM PRESSURE GENERATED DURING VENTRICULAR CONTRACTION IS THE ___ SYSTOLIC PRESSURE
WHEN THE VENTRICLES RELAX___THE ARTERIAL PRESSURE DROPS VENTRICULAR DIASTOLE
THE LOWEST PRESSURE THAT REMAINS IN THE ARTERIES PRIOR TO THE NEXT VENTRICUAL CONTRACTION IS THE DIASTOLIC PRESSURE
IN THE SYSTEMIC SYSTEM THE NORMAL SYSTOIC PRESSURE IS ABOUT___ AND NORMAL DIASTOLIC PRESSURE IS ABOUT ___ 120 mmHg : 80mmHg
IN THE PULMONARY SYSTEM THE NORMAL SYSTOLIC PRESSURE IS ABOUT ___AND THE NORMAL DIASTOLIC PRESSURE IS ABOUT___ 25mmHg : 8mmHg
THE PULMONARY SYSTEM IS A __PRESSURE SYSTEM LOW
THE MEAN PRESSURE IN THE PULMONARY ARTERY IS ABOUT__-AND THE MEAN PRESSURE IN THE LEFT ATRIUM IS ABOUT ___ 15mmHg : 5mmHg
THE DRIVING PRESSURE NEEDED TO MOVE BLOOD THROUGH THE LUNGS IS ___ 10mmHg
THE MEAN INTRALUMINAL PRESSURE IN THE AORTA IS ABOUT ___ ADN THE MEAN RIGHT ATRIAL PRESSURE IS ABOUT ___MAKING THE DRIVING PRESSURE THROUGH THE SYSTEMIC SYSTEM ABOUT __ 100mmHg: 2mmHg: 98mmHg
COMPARED WITH THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION, THE PRESSURE IN THE SYSTEMIC SYSTEM IS ABOUT __TIME GREATER 10
THE SURGE OF BLOOD RUSHIN INTO THE ARTERIAL SYSTEM DURING ___CAUSES THE ELASTIC WALLS OF THE ARTERIES TO EXAPND VENTRICULAR CONTRACTION
THE VOLUME OF BLOOD EJECTED FROM THE VENTRICLE DURING EACH CONTRACTION IS CALLED THE STROKE VOLUME
NORMALLY, THE STROKE VOLUME RANGES BETWEEN ___AND ___ 40ML AND 80ML
THE TOTAL VOLUME OF BLOOD DISCHARGED FROM THE VENTRICLES PER MINUTE IS CALLED CARDIAC OUTPUT
THE CARDIAC OUTPUT (CO) IS CALCULATED BY MUTIPLYING THE ___ BY THE ___ PER MINUTE STROKE VOLUME(SV) BY THE HEART RATE (HR) (CO=SV X HR)
IF STROK VOLUME IS 70mL AND THE HEART RATE IS 72 BEATS PER MINUTE (bpm) THE CARDICA OUTPUT IS 5040mL/MINUTE
UNDER NORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES, THE ___DIRECTLY INFLUENCES BLOOD PRESSURE CARDIAC OUTPUT
WHEN EITHER THE STROKE VOLUME OR HEART RATE INCREASES THE ____ INCREASES BLOOD PRESSURE
WHEN THE STROKE VOLUME OR THE HEART RATE DECREASED THE _____DECREASED BLOOD PRESSURE
THE TOTAL BLOOD VOLUME VARIES WITH AGE, BODY SIZE, ADN SEX, THE NORMAL ADULT VOLUME IS ABOUT --- 5mL
WHAT % IS THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION BLOOD VOLUME OF AN ADULT, __IN THE HEART, AND __IN THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION 75% ; 15%; 10%
WHAT % OF THE TOTAL BLOOD VOLUME IS IN THE VEINS___ 60%
WHAT IS THE % OF TOTAL BLOOD VOLUME IN THE ARTERIES 10%
NORMALLY THE PULMONARY CAPIALLARY BED CONTAINS ABOUT __% OF BLOOD, ALTHOUGH IT HAS A CAPACITY OF ___mL 75 ; 200
IN THE UPRIGHT LUNG, BLOOD FLOW PROGRESSIVELY DECREASES FROM THE ____ THE BASE TO THE APEX
WHAT IS THE LINEAR DISTRIBUTION OF BLOOD FUNCTIONS 1.GRAVITY 2.CARDIAC OUTPUT 3. PULMONARY VASCULAR RESISTANCE
BECAUSE BLOOD IS REALATIVELY HEAVY SUBSTANCE IT IS ______- GRAVITY DEPENDENT
WHAT NATURALLY MOVES TO THE PROTION OF THE BODY, OR PROTION OF THE ORGAN , THAT IS CLOSED TO THE GROUND GRAVITY DEPENDENT
IN THE AVERAGE LUNG, WHAT IS THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE BASE AND THE APEX 30cm
THE BLOOD THAT FILLS THE LUNG FROM THE BOTTOM TO THE TOP IS ANALOGOUS TO THE COLUMN OF WATER ____ AND THEREFORE, EXERTS A PRESSURE OF ABOUT ___BETWEEN THE BASE AND APEX 30cm ; 30cmH2O
THE PULMONARY ARTERY ENTERS EACH LUNG ABOUT MIDWAY BETWEEN THE TOP AND BOTTOM OF THE, THE PULMONARY ARTERY PRESSURE MUST BE GREATER THAN ___ TO OVERCOME THE GRAVITIONAL FORCE ADN THERBY, SUPPLY BLOOD TO THE LUNG APEX 15cmH2O
WHEN THE ALVEOLI ARE VENTILATED BUT NOT PERFUSED, NO GAS EXCHANGE CAN OCCUR AND ____IS SAID TO EXIST ALVEOLAR DEAD SPACE
WHAT IS STROKE VOLUME DETERMINED BY 1. VENTRICULAR PRELOAD, 2. VENTRICULAR AFTERLOAD, 3. MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTILITY
____REFERS TO THE DEGREE THAT THE MYOCARDIAL FIBER IS STRETCHED PRIOR TO CONTRACTION (END-DIASTOLE) VENTRICULAR PRELOAD
____DEFINED AS THE FORCE AGAINST WHICH THE VENTRICLES MUST WORK TO PUMP BLOOD. VENTRICULAR AFTERLOAD
____MAY BE REGARDED AS THE FORCE GENERATED BY THE MYOCARDIUM WHEN THE VENTRICULAR MUSCLE FIBERS SHORTEN MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTILITY
AN INCREASE IN MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTILITY IS REFERRED TO AS POSTIVE INOTROPISM
A DECREASED IN MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTILITY IS REFERRED TO AS NEGATIVE INOTROPISM
___IS DERIVED BY DIVIDING THE MEAN BLOOD PRESSURE(BP) BY THE CARDIAC OUTPUT(CO) RESISTANCE=_BP/CO
WHEN THE ____RESISTANCE INCREASES, THE __PRESSURE INCREASES( WHICH IN TURN INCREASES THE VENTRICULAR AFTERLOAD) VASCULAR, BLOOD
IN THE PULMONARY SYSTEM, THERE ARE SEVERAL KNOWN MECHANISMS THAT CHANGE THE VASCULAR RESISTANCE. AND ARE CLASSIFIED AS ___ ACTIVE OR PASSIVE MECHANISMS
ACTIVE MECHANISM THAT EFEECT VASCULAR RESISTNCE INCLUED ___ ABNORMAL BLOOD GASES, PHARMACOLOGIC STIMULATION, PATHOLOGIC CONDITIOINS
THE PULMONARY VASCULAR SYSTEM CONTRICTS IN RESPONSE TO A DECREASED ____ ALVEOLARY OXYGEN PRESSURE ( HYPOXIA)
PULMONARY VASCULAR RESISTANCE INCREASES IN RESPONSE TO AN ACUTE INCREASE IN THE ___ Pco2 LEVEL ( HYPERCAPNIA)
PULMONARY VASOCONSTRICTION DEVELOPS IN RESPONSE TO DECREASED __( INCREASED___ )OR ___, OF EITHER METABOLIC OR RESPIRATORY ORGIN PH; H+; ACIDEMIA
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE VEDP(DEGREE OF MYOCARDIAL STRETCH) AND CARDIAC OUTPUT(STROKE VOLUME) IS KNOWN AS ___ FRANK STARLING CURVE
THE REDUCTION OF THE PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE( AFTERLOAD REDUCTION), THE STROKE VOLUME INCREASES WITH LITTLE OR CHANGE IN THE BLOOD PRESSURE. THIS IS BECAUSE BLOOD PRESSURE(BP) IS A FUNCTION OF CARDIAC OUTPUT(CO) TIMES THE SYSTEMIC VASCULARY RESISTANCE ( SVR BP=CO X SVR
PYLMONARY VASOCONSTRICTION DEVELOPS IN RESPONSE TO DECREASED __( INCREASED ___CONCETRATION) OR __, OF EITHER METABLOIC OR RESPRIATORY ORGIN pH; H+; ACIDEMIA
PHARMACOLOGIC STIMULATION. THE PULMONARY VESSEL CONSTRICT IN RESPONSE TO VARIOUS PHARMACOLOGIC AGENTS INCLUDING EPINEPHRINE, NOREPHINEPHRINE, DOBUTAMINE, DOPAMINE, PHENYLEPHRINE
CONSTRICTED PULMONARY VESSELS RELAX IN RESPONSE TO THE FOLLOWING AGENTS OXYGEN, ISOPROTERENOL, AMINOPHYLLINE, CALCIUM-CHANNEL BLOCKING AGENTS
PULMONARY VASCULAR RESISTNCEINCREASES IN RESPONSED TO A NUMBER OF PATHOLOGIC CONDITIONS INCLUDING VESSEL BLOCKAGE OR OBSTRUCTION, VESSEL WALL DISEASE, VESSEL DESTRUCTIION OR OBLITERATION, VESSEL COMPRESSION
____CAUSED BY A THROMBUS OR AN EMBOLUS( BLOOD CLOT, FAT CELL, AIR BUBBLE, OR TUMOR MASS VESSL BLOCKAGE OR OBSTRUCTION
____SCLEROSIS, POLYARTERITIS OR SCLERODERMA VESSEL WALL DISEASE
___EMPHYSEMA OR PULMONARY INTERSTITIAL FIBROSIS VESSEL DESTRUCTION OR OBLITERATION
___PHNEUMOTHROAX, HEMOTHROAX, OR TUMOR MASS VESSEL COMPRESSION
PATHOLOGIC DISTURBANCES IN THE PULMONARY VASCULARY SYSTEM CAN DEVELOP IN ____ ARTERIES, ARTERIOLES, CAPILLARIES, VENULES, OR VEINS
WHEN INCREASED VASCUALR RESISTANCE ORGINATES IN THE VENULES OR VEINS, THE TRANSUMURAL PRESSURE INCREASES AND IN SEVERE CASES, CAUSED THE CAPIALLRY FLUIED TO SPILL INTO THE ALVEOLI AND THIS IS CALLED ___ PULMONARY EDEMA
THE TERM ____REFERS TO A SCONDARY CHANGE I PULMONARY VASCULAR RESISTANCE THAT OCCURS IN RESPONSE TO ANOTHER MECHANICAL CHANGE PASSIVE MECHANISM
THE PULMONARY VASCULAR RESISTNCE DECREASES BECAUSE OF THE INCREASE IN INTRALUMINAL DISTENDING PRESSURE, WHICH INCREASES THE TOTAL CROSS-SECTIONAL AREAS OF THE PULMONARY VASCULAR SYSTEM TRHOUGH THE MECHANISMS OF __ AND __ RECRUITMENT AND DISTENSION
____DECREASES PULMONARY VASCUALR RESISTANCE INCREASED MEAN PULMONARY ATRERIAL PRESSURE
___MEANS THE OPENING OF VESSELS THAT WERE CLOSED OR NOT BEING UTILIZED FOR BLOOD FLOW BEFORE THE VASCULAR PRESSURE INCREASED RECRUITMENT
___MEANS THE STRETCHING OR WIDENING OF VESSELS THAT WERE OPEN, BUT NOT TO THEIR FULL CAPACITY. DISTENTION
______, WHILE THE LUNG VOLUME AND PULMONARY ARTERIAL PRESSURE ARE HELD CONSTANT, PULMONARY VASCULAR RESISTANCE DECREASES LEFT ATRIAL PRESSURE CHANGES
____EFFECT THE CHANGES IN LUNG VOLUME ON PULMONARY VASCUALR RESISTANCE VARIES ACCORDING TO THE LOCATION OF THE VESSEL LUNG VOLUME CHANGES
___VESSELS THAT SUROUND THE ALVEOLI ( PULMOANRY CAPILLARIES ALVEOLAR VESSELS
____ THE LARGER ARTERIS AND VEINS
DURING NORMAL INSPIRATION,____ PROGRESSIVELY STRETCH AND FLATTEN ALVEOLAR VESSELS
---THE RECRUITMENT AND DISTRENSION OF PULMONARY VESSELS WILL ENSUE, AND PULMONARY VASCULAR RESISTANCE WILL TEND TO DECREASE BLOOD VOLUME CHANGES
___IS DERIVED FROM THE HEMATOCRIT, THE INTERITY OF RED BLOOD CELLS, AND THE COMPOSITION OF PLASMA. AS___INCREASES, THE PULMONARY VASCULAR RESISTANCE INCREASES BLOOD VISCOSITY CHANGES
THE TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN TO THE CELLS OF THE BODY IS A FUNCTION OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
THE ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM CONSIST OF BLOOD, HEART, AND THE PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC VASCULAR SYSTEM
BLOOD CONSIST OF A VARIETY OF SPECIALIZED CELLS THAT ARE SUSPENDED IN FLUID CALLED PLASMA
THE CELLS IN THE PLASMA INCLUDE ERYTHROCYTES, LEUKOCYTES, THROMBOCYTES
ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF THE HEART INCLUDE THE RIGHT AND LEFT ATRIA, VENTRICLES, AND THE INTERVENTRICULAR SEPTUM, PERICARDIUM
ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF THE HEART INCLUDE THE WALLS OF THE HEART( EPICARDIUM, MYOCARDIUM, ENDOCARDIUM )
ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF THE HEART INCLUDE THE ARTERIAL SUPPLY OF THE HEART ( THE LEFT AND RIGHT CORORNARY ARTERY) THE VENOUS DRAINAGE ( THE GREAT CARDIAC VEINS, MIDDLE CARDIAC VEINS, CORONARY SINUS, AND THEBESIAN VEIN AND THE BLOOD FLOW THROUGH THE HEART
THE PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC VASCUALRY SYSTEM ARE COMPOSED OF THE ARTERIES, ARTERIOLES, ACAPPILLARIES, VENULES, VEINS
THE PULMONARY ARTERIOLES AND MOST OF THE ARTERIOLES IN THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION ARE CONTROLLED BY SYMPATHETIC IMPULES
SPECIALIZED STRETCH RECEPTORS CALLED BARORECEPTORS
THREE TYPES OF PRESSURES ARE USED TO STUDY THE BLOOD FLOW IN THE PULMONARY ADN SYSTEMIC VASCULAR SYSTEMS INCLUDE INTRAVASCULAR, TRANSMURAL, AND DRIVING
DURING EACH CARDIC CYCLE THE ____AND ___HAVE A DIRECT RELATIONSHIP TO THE BLOOD PRESSURE SYSTOLE AND DIASTOLE
DURING ___ THE ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE SHARPLY INCREASES, DURING ____, THE ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE DECREASES VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE, VENTRICULAR DIASTOLE
THE HIGH AND LOW BLOOD PRESSURE GENERATED BY VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE AND DIASTOLE REULTS IN MEAN ____THROUGHOUT THE PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION INTRALUMINAL BLOOD PRESSURE
THE MEAN ____PRESSURE IS ABOUT 10 TIMES THAT OF THE PULMONARY VASCULAR SYSTEM SYSTEMIC VASCULAR
THE DISTRIBUTION OF PULMONARY BLOOD FLOW IS A FUNCITON OF ___- 1. GRAVITY, 2. CARDIAC OUTPUT, 3. PULMONRY VASCULAR RESISTANCE
THE INFLUENCE OF GRAIVITY IN THE UPPER RIGHT LUNG IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF ZONE 1,2, 3 IS THE MOST GRAVITY- DEPENDENT AREA
DETERMINANTS OF CARDIAC OUTPUT IS A FUNCTION OF VENTRICULAR PRELOAD, VENTRICULAR AFTERLOAD, MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTILITY
THE PULMONARY VASCULAR RESISTANCE MAY INCREASE OR DECREASE AS A RESULT OF __AND __ ACTIVE AND PASSIVE MECHANISMS
ACTIVE MECHANISMS INCLUDE ABNORMAL BLOOD GASES, PHARMOLOGIC STIMULATION, PATHOLOGIC CONDIDITONS
PASSIVE MECHANISMS INCLUDE INCREASED PULMONARY ARTERIAL PRESSURE, INCREASED LEFT ARTERIAL PRESSURE, LUNG VOLUME CHANGES, ADN BLOOD VOLUME AND BLOOD VISCOSITY CHANGES
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