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KIN: Skeletal Consid

QuestionAnswer
How is the general shape and size of bones determined? They are inherited
What are the functions of the skeletal system? Levers Support Protection Storage Blood cell formation
What are the two parts of long bones? Diaphysis Epiphysis
Why are long bones called long bones? Because they are longer than they are wide
What type of bone is the diaphysis made up of? Compact bone
What type of bone is the epiphysis made up of? Spongy bone
Where is the bone marrow of the bones located? Inside the medullary cavity
What membrane covers bones? Periosteum
How do bones lengthen? Compressive forces put stress on them causing them to grow
How are protuberances formed on bones? Tensile forces
What are short bones primarily made up of? Spongy bone covered with thin layer of compact bone
What are some examples of long bones? Humerus, tibia, metacarpals
What role do short bones play? Shock absorption
What type of bone are flat bones made up of? Two layers of compact bone, with spongy bone and marrow in between
What is the function of flat bones? Protect internal organs Muscular attachment
What's an example of a short bone? Carpals
What are some examples of flat bones? Ribs, scapula, ilium, sternum
What type of bone are irregular bones? Spongy bone with thin compact bone exterior
What is the function of irregular bones? Weight bearing, dissipating loads, protection of SC, site for muscle attachments
What are some examples of irregular bones? Skull, pelvis, vertebrae
What is a sesmoid bone? Short bone embedded within a tendon or joint capsule
Why are sesmoid bones important? They increase the MA of that tendon which increases the amount of force it can produce
Where are sesmoid bones typically found? Quads, base of first MT, FHB, thumb, FPB
What is one of the body's hardest structures? Bone
What percent of bone tissue is made up of water? 25-30%
What is myositis ossificans? Bone deposit laid down in soft tissue as a response to trauma or hematoma
How does myositis ossificans form? Starts out as fibrous tissue that turns into cartilage and then bone
What is compact bone good for? Providing strength
What is spongy bone good for? High energy storage capability due to its high porosity
What is woven bone? Immature bone found in newborns, embryo
What is lamellar bone? More mature bone that begins to form 1 month after birth and replaces woven bone
Is periosteum vascular or avascular? Vascular - permeated by blood vessels and nerve fibers
Does periosteum cover the entire bone? No - everything except the joint surfaces which are covered with hyaline cartilage
In what direction do long bones tolerate the greatest load? Longitudinal
What are the three parameters when determining strength of bone? Load sustained before failing Deformation sustained before failing Energy stored before failing
Do bones handle greater stress at higher or lower speeds of loading? Higher speeds - slow loading causes fracture at 1/2 the load
What is the elastic range? When stress is released bone will return to original form
What is the yield point? Point at which fibers in material begin to fail
What is the plastic phase? When microtears and debonding occurs
Can tissues return to normal once they have reached the plastic phase? No
When will brittle material fail? At the end of the elastic phase
What is ductile material? Material that will continue to elongate and deform a great deal in the plastic phase
What is still material? Material that will have minimal deformation to increased loads
What do compressive forces do? shortens and widens structure
What are the types of loads? Compression Tension Shear Bending Torsional
What are tension forces? Pull or stretch bones apart
What are shear forces? Forces applied parallel to surface, creating deformation internally in an angular direction - these cause rapid failure
What type of force can produce a spondylolisthesis? Shearing forces
What are bending forces? One side will form a concavity, while the other side will form a convexity
What side will bones typically fracture on during a bending force? Convex side
How could bones benefit from a slight bending force? They become stressed so if properly rested it will make them stronger
What is three point force application? Force applied perpendicular to bone at ends of bone and in the middle
Example of a bending force injury Falling forward over a boot
What are torsional forces? Twisting manor creating shear over entire bone
What does exercise do to bone? Increases cortical thickness Increases bone mineral content
What is another name for compact bone? Cortical bone
What are anisotropic characteristics of long bones and what is an example? Behavior will vary depending on direction of load Can tolerate greatest load in longitudinal direction
What are viscoelastic characteristics of long bones and what is an example? Respond to the rate at which load is applied Handle greater stress at higher speeds
What is an elastic response of long bones? Will change length or shape when load is applied
What type of material shows little deformation before failing? Stiff
Created by: 1185240090