Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Psych 141

Human Life Span - Development Ch 1 & 2 Test Prep.

Cognative development Pattern of change in mental abilities, such as learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning, and creativity.
Cohort A group of people born at about the same time.
Critical period Specific time when a gfiven event or its absence has a specific impact on development.
Culture A society’s or group’s total way of life, including customs, traditions, beliefs, values, language, and physical products
Environment Totality of nonhereditary, or experiential, influences on development.
Ethnic gloss Overgeneralization about an ethnic or cultural group that obscures differences within the group.
Ethnic group A group united by ancestry, race, religion, language, and/or national origins, which contribute to a sense of shared identity.
Extended Family Multigenerational kinship network of parents, children, and other relatives, sometimes living together in an extended-family household.
Heredity Inborn traits or characteristics inherited from the biological parents.
Historical generation A group of people strongly influenced by a major historical even during their formative period.
Human Development Scientific study of processes of change and stability throughout the human life span.
Imprinting Instinctive form of learning in which, during a critical period in early development, a young animal forms an attachment to the first moving object it sees, usually the mother.
Individual differences Differences in characteristics, influences, or development outcomes.
Life-Span development Concept of human development as a lifelong process, which can be studied scientifically.
Maturation Unfolding of a natural sequence of physical and behavioral changes.
Nonnormative Characteristic of an unusual even that happens to a particular person or a typical event that happens at an unusual time of life.
Normative Characteristic of an event that occurs in a similar way for most people in a group.
Nuclear Family Two-generational kinship, economic, and household unit consisting of one or two parents and their biological children, adopted children, or stepchildren.
Plasticity Range of modifiability of performance.
Psychosocial development Pattern of change in emotions, personality, and social relationships
Physical development Growth of body and brain, including patterns of changes in sensory capacities, motor skills, and health.
Risk factors Conditions that in case the likelihood of a negative developmental outcome.
Sensitive periods times in development when a person is particularly open to certain kinds of experiences.
Social construction A concept or practice that may appear natural and obvious to those who accept it, but that in reality is an invention of a particular culture or society.
Socioeconomic status (SES) Combination of economic and social factors describing an individual or family, including income, education, and occupation.
Accommodation Piaget’s term for changes in a cognitive structure to include new information.
Adaptation Piaget’s term for adjustment to new information about the environment, achieved through processes of assimilation and accommodation.
Assimilation Piaget’s term for incorporation of new information into an existing cognitive structure.
Behaviorism Learning theory that emphasizes the predictable role of environment in causing observable behavior.
Bioecological theory Bronfenbrenner’s approach to understanding processes and contexts of human development that identifies five levels of environmental influence.
Case study Study of a single subject, such as an individual or family.
Classical conditioning Learning based on association of a stimulus that does not ordinarily elicit a particular response with another stimulus that does elicit the response.
Cognitive neuroscience Study of links between neural processes and cognitive abilities.
Cognitive perspective View that thought processes are central to development.
Cognitive-stage theory Piaget’s theory that children’s cognitive development advances in a series of four stages involving qualitatively distinct types of mental operations.
Contextual perspective View of human development that sees the individual as inseparable from the social context.
Control group In an experiment, a group of people, similar to those in the experimental group, who do not receive the treatment under study.
Correlational study Research design intended to discover whether a statistical relationship between variables exists.
Cross-sectional study Study designed to assess age-related differences, in which people of different ages are assessed on one occasion.
Dependent variable In an experiment, the condition that may or may not change as a result of changes in the independent variable.
Equilibration Piaget’s term for the tendency to seek a stable balance among cognitive elements; achieved through a balance between assimilation and accommodation.
Ethnographic study In-depth study of a culture, which uses a combination of methods including participant observation.
Ethology Study of distinctive adaptive behaviors of species of animals that have evolved to increase survival of the species.
Evolutionary/sociobiological perspective View of human development that focuses on evolutionary and biological bases of behavior.
Evolutionary psychology application of Darwinian principles of natural selection and survival of the fittest to individual behavior.
Experiment Rigorously controlled, replicable procedure in which the researcher manipulates variables to assess the effect of one on the other.
Experimental group In an experiment, the group receiving the treatment under study.
Hypothesis Possible explanations for phenomena, used to predict the outcome of research.
Independent variable In an experiment, the condition over which the experimenter has direct control.
Information-processing approach Approach to the study of cognitive development by observing and analyzing the mental processes involved in perceiving and handling information.
Laboratory observation Research method in which all participants are observed under the same controlled conditions.
Learning perspective View of human development which holds that changes in behavior result from experience or from adaptation to the environment.
Longitudinal study study designed to assess age changes in a sample over time.
Mechanistic model Model that views human development as a series of predictable responses to stimuli.
Naturalistic Observation Research method in which behavior is studied in natural settings without intervention or manipulation.
Operational definition Definition stated solely in terms of the operations or procedures used to produce or measure a phenomenon.
Observational learning Learning through watching the behavior of others.
Operant conditioning Learning based on association of behavior with its consequences.
Organismic model model that views human development as internally initiated by an active organism and as occurring in a sequence of qualitatively different stages.
Organization Piaget’s term for the creation of categories or systems of knowledge.
Participant observation Research method in which the observer lives with the people or participates in the activity being observed.
Psychoanalytic perspective View of human development as being shaped by unconscious forces.
Psychosexual development In Freudian theory, an unvarying sequence of stages of childhood personality development in which gratification shifts from the mouth to the anus and then to the genitals.
Psychosocial development In Erikson’s eight-stage theory, the socially and culturally influenced process of development of the ego, or self.
Punishment In operant conditioning, a process that weakens and discourages repetition of a behavior.
Qualitative change Change in kind, structure, or organization, such as the change from nonverbal to verbal communication.
Qualitative Research Research that focuses on nonnumerical data, such as subjective experiences, feelings, or beliefs.
Quantitative change Change in number or amount, such as in height, weight, or the size of vocabulary.
Quantitative research Research that deals with objectively measurable data.
Random assignment Assignment of participants in an experiment to groups in such a way that each person has an equal chance of being placed in any group.
Random selection Selection of a sample in such a way that each person in a population has an equal and independent chance of being chosen.
Reciprocal determination Bandura’s term for bidirectional forces that affect development.
Reinforcement In operant conditioning, a process that strengthens and encourages repetition of a desired behavior.
Sample Group of participants chosen to represent the entire population under study.
Scaffolding Temporary support to help a child master a task.
Schemes Piaget’s term for organized patterns of thought and behavior used in particular situations.
Scientific method System of established principles and processes of scientific inquiry, which includes identifying a problem to be studied, formulating a hypothesisSelf-efficacy
Sequential study study design that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal techniques.
Social learning theory Theory that behaviors are learned by observing and imitating models. Also called social cognitive theory.
Sociocultural theory Vygotsky’s theory of how contextual factors affect children’s development.
Theory Coherent set of logically related concepts that seeks to organize, explain, and predict data.
Zone of proximal development (ZPD) Vygotsky’s term for the difference between what a child can do alone and what the child can do with help.
Created by: 85600838
Popular Psychology sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards