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chapter 1

Chapter 1 Review

QuestionAnswer
Psychology=The science of behavior and mental processes Survey=A research method that involves giving people questionnaires or special interviews designed to obtain descriptions of their attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and intentions.
Critical Thinking=The process of assessing claims and making judgments on the basis of well-supported evidence. Control Group=In an experiment, the group that receives no treatment or provides some other baseline against which to compare the performance or response of the experimental group.
Hypothesis=In scientific research, a prediction stated as a specific, testable proposition about a phenomenon. Independent Variable=The variable manipulated by the researcher in an experiment.
Variable=A factor or characteristic that is manipulated or measured in research Dependent Variable=In an experiment, the factor affected by the independent variable.
Theory=An integrated set of propositions that can be used to account for, predict, and even suggest ways of controlling certain phenomena Hindsight Bias=The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
Naturalistic Observation=The process of watching without interfering as a phenomenon occurs in the natural environment. False Consensus Effect=The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
Case Study=A research method involving the intensive examination of some phenomenon in a particular individual, group, or situation. Population=All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
Correlation Coefficient=A statistic, r, that summarizes the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables. Scatter Plot=A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables
Illusory Correlation=The perception of a relationship where none exists Experiment=A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
Placebo Effect=Experimental results caused by expectations alone Random Assignment=Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups
Mode=The most frequently occurring score in a distribution Mean=The arithmetic average of a distribution
Median=The middle score in a distribution Range=The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
Standard Deviation=A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score Culture=The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
Behaviorism=A field of psychology that concentrates on observable, measureable behaviors and not on mental processes. Functionalism=An attempt to understand how mental processes produce useful behaviors
Correlation Coefficient=A statistic, r, that summarizes the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables. Scatter Plot=A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables
Illusory Correlation=The perception of a relationship where none exists Experiment=A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
Placebo Effect=Experimental results caused by expectations alone Random Assignment=Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups
Mode=The most frequently occurring score in a distribution Mean=The arithmetic average of a distribution
Median=The middle score in a distribution Range=The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
Standard Deviation=A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score Culture=The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
Behaviorism=A field of psychology that concentrates on observable, measureable behaviors and not on mental processes. Functionalism=An attempt to understand how mental processes produce useful behaviors
Correlation Coefficient=A statistic, r, that summarizes the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables. Scatter Plot=A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables
Illusory Correlation=The perception of a relationship where none exists Experiment=A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
Placebo Effect=Experimental results caused by expectations alone Random Assignment=Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups
Mode=The most frequently occurring score in a distribution Mean=The arithmetic average of a distribution
Median=The middle score in a distribution Range=The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
Standard Deviation=A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score Culture=The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
Behaviorism=A field of psychology that concentrates on observable, measureable behaviors and not on mental processes. Functionalism=An attempt to understand how mental processes produce useful behaviors
Introspection=Looking within oneself. Nature-Nurture Issue=The question of the relative roles played by heredity (nature) and environment (nurture) in determining differences in behavior.
Structuralism=An attempt to describe the structures that compose the mind. Wilhelm Wundt=Set up the first psychological laboratory in Leipzeg, Germany
Edward Titchener=Believed the main question of psychology was the nature of mental experiences. He called his approach structuralism. William James=The founder of American psychology
John B Watson=Known as the father of behaviorism. Sigmund Freud=Father of psychoanalysis
Ivan Pavlov=Salivation BF Skinner=Operant conditioning
G. Stanley Hall=First President Of APA, first lab in USA Jean Piaget=The study of cognitive development in children
Carl Rogers=1 founder of humanistic approach 2 psychology Mary Whiton Calkins=1st female president APA- Psych grad
Charles Darwin=Natural Selection Dorothea Dix=1st generation of American Mental Asylums
Margaret Floy Washburn=1st woman Ph.D. in psychology John B. Watson=Founder of Behaviorism & Observable behavior
E.B. Titchener=Named structuralism Max Wertheimer=Founded Gestalt Psychology
industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology=the psychological study of people at work. psychoanalyst=the study pf psychoanalysis
Empiricism=knowledge through experiences Cognitive=Focuses on the important role of mental processes in how people process and remember information, develop language, solve problems, and think
Humanistic=what makes us unique, free will and potential healthy individuals Evolutionary=biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share
Gestalt Theory=a theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is different from simply the sum of its constituent elements Psychoanalytic Theory=Personality theory and form of psychotherapy that emphasizes the role of unconscious factors in personality and behavior
Counseling Psychology=a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being Clinical Psychology=a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
Socio-Cultural Psychology=the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking Experimental group=A subject or group of subjects in an experiment that is exposed to the factor or condition being tested.
Single blind Experiment=an experiment set up in such a way that subjects are kept uninformed of any details which might lead to bias Double blind Experiment=Experimental technique in which neither the participants nor the researcher interacting with the participants is aware of the group or condition to which the participants have been assigned
Operational definitions=A precise description of how the variables in a study will be manipulated or measured Validity=ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure
Reliability=the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting Sample=A selected segment of the population used to represent the group that is being studied
Survey method=A questionnaire or interview designed to investigate the opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of a particular group Correlation=a statistical relation between two or more variables such that systematic changes in the value of one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in the other
Descriptive statistics=statistical procedures used to describe characteristics and responses of groups of subjects Inferential statistics=numerical methods used to determine whether research data support a hypothesis or whether results were due to chance
Normal Curve=bell-shaped curve that results when the values of a trait in a population are plotted against their frequency Positive correlation=A finding that two factors vary systematically in the same direction, increasing or decreasing together
Negative correlation=A finding that two factors vary systematically inopposite directions, one increasing as the other decreases Plato=Nature - ideas are innate and predetermined, believed mind and body were separate
Aristotle=Founder of empiricism, nurture, soul and body are interconnected Locke=Founded Tabula Rasa, Nurture
Natural Selection=The driving force behind evolution, by which the environment "selects" the fittest organisms. applied=those who make direct use of the findings of research psychologist
psychoanalytic approach=emphasizes importance of unconscious sexual motives and conflicts as determinants of behavior, personality traits and disorders are distinguished as effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas, Sigmund Freud evolutionary psychology=natural selection occurs for behavioral as well as physical characteristics
longitudinal study=retest the same individual over a period of time cross sectional study=test and compare individual of various ages
Psychiatrist=a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders; can prescribe medication Confirmation bias=Tendency to search for information that suppors our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
Laboratory Observation=the study of behavior in a controlled situation Nativism=policy protecting native inhabitant's interests
Rationalism=Practice Accepting Reason Psychodynamic=The terms of conscious and unconscious thoughts
Psychologist=doctoral degree in psychology Distribution=Dispersed
Central Tendency=Central location in a set of data Variance=difference or inconsistency
Deceiving=To gain personal advantage Debrief=Explain the purpose of the study
Created by: Valincea