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PSY150 Final Qs

PSY 150 Final Exam Questions

What explanation did researchers give for participants’ changes in their estimates of the distance the light moved in Sherif’s experiment on the autokinetic effect? Because of ambiguity, the participants turned to each other for guidance.
What explanation was given for participants’ responses in Asch’s line comparison experiment? Although it was obvious that the group was wrong, it felt awkward to go against the group. If there was an ally to go against the group with, conformity fropped.
What factors decrease the likelihood of conformity? Having an ally, Lack of Awareness, Feeling that norm does not apply, strong desire to maintain individuality and control.
What factors increase the likelihood of conformity? Increased group size, up to a point, can influence conformity. Conformity with knowledge of norms and salience.
What effect does salience have on conformity to norms? The environment can unconsciously cue norms so we conform.
For what reasons might an individual not conform to group norms? The culture may value individualism, diminishing returns in large groups, individual values.
When are minorities most likely to be influential? Can exert influence with consistency, avoiding rigid/dogmatic appearance, and with the correct social context.
How does justification (reason giving) influence compliance? Does the reason given need to be compelling? Giving a reason significantly increases comnpliance, even if it's not a good reason. (Copying machine)
In what circumstances does reciprocity increase compliance with requests? When we are given unsolicited goods or acts of kindness, we feel comnpelled to reciprocate. Free sample/gifts (Foot-in-the-door technique)
How does perceived scarcity impact value and compliance? If we feel the items are more rare, we perceive them as more valuable thus more attractive to obtain. We view scarcity as a threat to freedom so we comply.
How likely were individuals to obey the experimenter in Milgram’s study when they believed that they were harming another participant? What are the implications for war crimes and other situations where individuals are acting under orders of authority? Very likely to obey. If you obey at all, you are likely to obey all the way.
What factors increase or decrease the likelihood of obedience to authority? Decrease: acknowledgement of the influence, other rebels. Increase: physical presence and apparent legitimacy, coersion.
What factors increase group cohesiveness? A sense of "other," strong similar interests or values.
What are the costs/benefits of diversity in a group? Cost: target of rejection or agression, make communication/cooperation more difficult causing a delay in achieving goals. Benefits: diverse groups more flexible/creative.
According to social facilitation theory, what effect does the presence of others have on performance? Causes individual to return to their most common response in that given situation. Difficult or unfamiliar tasks will be more difficult.
Why does the presence of others impact one’s performance? Evaluation apprehension or distraction. The prescense can cause arousal AND narrowing of attention.
What factors decrease social loafing? If individual shown that their performance can be identified/evaluated. If one believes their own efforts are necesssary. If tasks is important/meaningful to participant. If small/cohesive group.
What signs might suggest that groupthink is occurring and what are its consequences? Pressure to conform, illusion of invulnerability, sense of moral superiority, tendency to underestimate opponents, self-censorship. Consequences are defective decision making and higher probability of a bad decision.
What are the effects of objective power on leadership? Leaders likely to use power negatively, scorn workers, pweceive poorer workers, take credit for accomplishments, self-serving behaviors and decisions.
What factors are required to satisfy most individuals’ need for affiliation? When might that need be partially satisfied? Regular social contact and ongoing relationships characterized by mutual concern. Either can be partially satisfying. There is a limite to the number of close friendships desired.
What is the best predictor of interpersonal attraction? Why? Proximity - physical closeness due to the mere exposure effect
When does repeated exposure not lead to increased liking? When one's initial evaluation is extremely negative.
What characteristics are thought to be more universally attractive and which are thought to be subjectively attractive? Universally attractive: symmetry, average faces. Subjectively attractive: body shapes vary across cultural/racial groups, standards change over time, cultural differences in beauty enhancement.
How does similarity relate to liking and what is the direction (causality) of this relationship? We like people who are similar and tend to associate with them. The more similar, the more we like.
What does research suggest about the relationship between liking and opposite or complementary characteristics? Similarity is important, but information amount dissimilarity has a slightly stronger effect than the same amount of info about similarity.
What leads individuals to be rejected from groups? In children, aggression, withdrawal, or deviance. In adults, deviance relative to group norms/goals (poor performance). Due to the bad apple effect, we may reject deviant people so they don't lead to deviance in the rest of our group.
What are the consequences of social rejection? Loneliness, may have a harder time interpreting others' emotional states.
How are lonely people similar vs different from non-lonely people? Similar: equally attractive and intelligent, have as much social contact. Dissilimar: may have a harder time interpreting others' emotional states.
What do evolutionary theorists suggest about gender and sexuality and what evidence supports this? What possible alternative explanations exist? Evol Theory - men are attracted to reproductive cues, women desire stability in single partner due to gestation time. Different in infidelity distresses. Evol Revised - we are more similar to promiscuous apes.
What factors best predict future relationship failure? John Gottman's Four Horsemen - Criticism, Contempt, Defensiveness, Stonewalling
What is the true divorce rate and what factors predict the likelihood of divorce? Likely around 34%, women marrying before age 20 increases risk, having parents who stayed together decreases risk, risk decreases as time in relationship increases.
Created by: Sarah1948
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