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PSY150 Final Terms

Final Exam - Terminology Only

Conformity The tendency to change perceptions, opinions, or behaviors to be more consistent with group norms.
Social Norm Group expectations for an individual's behavior in a given situion. Could be explicit or implicit.
Informational Influence People conform because the situation is ambiguous and they believe that others know more than they do. (Private acceptance)
Normative Influence People conform becuase they fear the consequences (social rejection) of appearing deviant. (Public conformity without private acceptance)
Salience Conformity happens only when we know about and focus on social norms - this does not equal consciousness. The environment can unconsciously "cue" norms. Ex. Windshield flyer being tossed on the ground.
Minority Influence A nonconfomist exerting influence rather than only receiving social influences. Requires 3 things: Consistency, Avoid appearing rigid/dogmatic, Social context.
Compliance Changes in behavior that are elicited by direct requests.
Foot-in-the-Door Technique Start with a very small request, secures agreement, then makes a separate, larger request.
"That's Not All Folks" Technique Begins with an inflated request, but then immediately decreasese size of request by offering a discount or bonus. MUST change before you get an answer to first request.
Deadline Technique Putting a time limit on the "deal," i.e. Call in the next 10 minutes!
Reciprocity The desire to repay or match the actions or expressions of others, such as buying makeup becuase they gave you a free gift.
Obedience Behavior change produced by the commands of authority. Often prosocial and necessary for society to function.
Milgram's Obedience Experiment Learner and teacher, gave shocks.
Optimal Distinctiveness Theory When people feel very similar to others in a group, they seek a way to be different. When they feel very different, they try to be more similar. Goldilocks Diversity.
Instrumental Group Role Helps the group achieve goals or complete tasks.
Expressive Group Role Provides emotional support, maintains morale.
Social Facilitation Theory Zajonc - Arousal due to the presence of others increases the dominant response tendency. Dominant response is the most common response for that person in that stuation but difficult or unfamiliar tasks will be more difficult to perform with others present
Social Loafing Theory People reduce their individual effort when working in a group versus alone.
Free Rider Problem AKA Bad Apple Effect. One social loafer can cause others to loaf as well.
Bad Apple Effect AKA Free Rider Problem. One social loafer can cause others to loaf as well.
Altruistic Punishment Sacrificing a person's own gain (or group's overall gain) in order to punish people who cheat the system. This promotes cooperation from all members.
Deindividuation Loss of self-awareness and individual accountability in a group. People give less effort and are less likely to adhere to social values. An extreme can be fascism.
Groupthink An excessive tendency to seek concurrence among group members.
Risky Shift The tendency for groups to take greater risks than the same individuals would individually.
Group Polarization Shift towards a more extreme position as the result of group discussion.
Legitimizing Myth Explanations used to justify why the people in power deserve to be in power.
Need for Affiliation A desire to form and maintain close relationships with other individuals.
Attraction Anything that draws two or more people together, making them want to be together and possibly to form a lasting relationship.
Social Acceptance The state in which other people have come to like you, respect you, approve of you, and include you in their groups and relationships.
Rejection Social Exclusion. Being prevented by others from forming or keeping a social bond with them.
Mere Exposure Effect Liking increases upon repeated exposure UNLESS one's initial evalution is extremely negative.
Matching Hypothesis People tend to pair up with others who are equaly attractive.
Balance Theory Newcomb & Heider. People like to organize things they like/dislike in a symmetrical way. Liking someone and greeing feels balanced, whereas liking someone and siagree results in a negative state and a desire to restore balance.
Social Comparison Theory Festinger. We compare attitudes/beliefs with those around us as a metric for our own accuracy/normalcy.
Rejection Sensitivity The tendency to expect rejection from others and to become hypersensitive to possible rejection.
Ostracism being excluded, rejected, and ignored by others.
Attachment Styles The degree of security that an individual feels in relationships. Combination of self-esteem and interpersonal trust.
Passionate Love Romantic love characterized by high arousal, intense attraction, and fear of rejection. Strong feelings of longing, desire, and excitement toward a special person.
Companionate Love A secure, trusting, stable relationship. Mutual liking, understanding, trust, and caring to make the relationship succeed.
Sternberg's Triangular Model of Love Passion - Intimacy - Commitment. With all three, there is Consummate Love.
Exchange vs. Communal Relationships Exchange: Based on reciprocity and fairness; people expect something in return. Communal: Based on mutual love and concern, withut expectations of payment. In intimate relationships, communal is best.
Relationship Enhancing Attribution Happy couples tend to attribute partner's good acts to internal factors and bad to external. Exaggerate how good their relationship is. Alternatives are rated as low.
Distress-Maintaining Attribution Style Tendency of unhappy couples to attribute partner's good acts to external factors and bad to internal.
Erotic Plasticity The degree to which the sex drive can be shaped and altered by social, cultural, and situational forces. Higher in women.
Extradyadic Sex Sex with someone other than one's relationship partner.
Coolidge Effect The sexually arousing power of a new partner is greater than the appeal of a familiar partner.
Investment Model Based on 3 factors: Satisfaction, Alternatives, Investments (sunk costs). Together they typically predict lasting commitment.
4 Attachment Styles Secure Attachment Style, Fearful/Avoidant Attachment Style, Preoccupied Attachment Style, Dismissing Attachment Style.
Pre-Occupied Attachment Style Low Self-Esteem, High Interpersonal Trust. Desires closeness but expects to be rejected.
Dismissing Attachment Style High Self-Esteem, Low Interpersonal Trust. Believes self deserves good relationships, but expects the worst in others. Lacks closeness in relationships.
Secure Attachment Style High Self-Esteem, High Interpersonal Trust. Trusts partners, shares, provides and receives support. Forms lasting, stable relationships.
Fearful/Avoidant Attachment Style Low Self-Esteem, Low Interpersonal Trust. Avoids letting others get close or establishes unhappy relationships.
Created by: Sarah1948