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Chapter 12


*Neuropharmacology* The study of drugs that alter processes controlled by the nervous system
Categories of neuropharmacologic drugs (1) peripheral nervous system (PNS) drugs and (2) central nervous system (CNS) drugs.
Which is more complex: CNS or PNS pharmacology? CNS Pharmacolgy
Axonal conduction The process of conducting an action potential down the axon of the neuron.
Synaptic transmission The process by which information is carried across the gap between the neuron and the postsynaptic cell.
1st two steps in synaptic transmission: Step 1, Synthesis of transmitter (T) from precursor molecules (Q, R, and S). Step 2, Storage of transmitter in vesicles.
Neuronal activities a drug can alter: axonal conduction or synaptic transmission
Most common neuronal activity altered by drugs: Synaptic transmission
Which is less selective? A drug altering axonal conduction or synaptic transmission? A drug altering axonal conduction.
Drugs affecting axonal conduction include: Local anesthetics
Selective drugs Affect synaptic transmission
Why is does alteration of synaptic transmission produce highly selective effects? Why? Because synapses, unlike axons, differ from one another.
How does a neuropharmacologic drug work? It affects receptors on target cells.
Drug Action concept The impact of a drug on a neuronally regulated process is dependent on the ability of that drug to directly or indirectly influence receptor activity on target cells.
Steps in synaptic transmission Step 1: transmitter synthesis. Step 2: transmitter storage. Step 3: transmitter release. Step 4: receptor binding.Step 5: termination of transmission.
Transmitter can be removed from the synaptic gap by three processes: (1) reuptake, (2) enzymatic degradation, and (3) diffusion.
Three different effects that drugs are known to have on transmitter synthesis: (1) increase transmitter synthesis, (2) decrease transmitter synthesis, or (3) cause the synthesis of transmitter molecules that are more effective than the natural transmitter itself.
Amphetamines CNS Stimulant, promotes transmitter release.
Botulinum toxin Acts by inhibiting transmitter release.
agonists drugs that directly activate receptors (eg. morphine, insulin)
antagonists drugs that prevent receptor activation (eg. maloxone, antihistamines, propanolol)
The principal examples of drugs that bind to receptors and thereby enhance the actions of a natural transmitter are the: benzodiazepines
Used to treat anxiety, seizure disorders, and muscle spasm: benzodiazepines
Created by: ekm