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Psychology Ch. 3

Biology and Psychology

A core concept of the theory of evolution that holds that adaptive genetic variations among members of a species enable individuals with those variations to survive and reproduce; these are preserved while nonadaptive variations tend to drop out Natural Selection
A sudden variation in an inheritable characteristic as distinguished from a variation that results from generations of gradual selection Mutation
The branch of psychology that studies the ways adaptation and natural selection are connected with mental processes and behavior Evolutionary psychology
Acategory of biological classification consisting of related organisms that are capable of interbreeding; homo sapiens make up one Species
A stereotyped pattern of behavior triggered by a particular stimulus and nearly identical among members of a species, even when reared in isolation Instinct
The transmission of traits from parent to offspring by means of genes Heredity
The area of biology that focuses on heredity Genetics
The area of biology and psychology that focuses on the transmission of traits that give rise to behavior Behavioral Genetics
A basic unit of heredity, which is found at a specific point on a chromosome Gene
A microscopic rod-shaped body in the cell nucleus carrying genes that transmit hereditary traits from generation to generation Chromosome
Abbreviation fro deoxyribonucleic acid, the substance that forms the basic material of chromosomes; it takes the form of a double helix and contains the genetic code DNA
Referring to traits that are influenced by combinations of genes Polygenic
One's genetic makeup based on the sequencing of the nucleotides we term A, T, C, and G Genotype
One's actual development and appearance based on one's genotype ad environmental influences Phenotype
The inborn, innate character of an organism Nature
The sum total of the environmental factors that affect an organism from conception onward (in another usage, it refers to the act of nourishing and otherwise promoting the development of youngsters) Nurture
The 23rd pair of chromosomes, whose genetic material determines the sex of the individual Sex Chromosomes
A condition caused by an extra chromosome on the 21st pair and characterized by mental deficiency, a broad face, and slanting eyes Down Syndrome
Twins that develop from a single fertilized ovum that divides in two early in prenatal development; share the same genetic code; identical Monozygotic (MZ) Twins
Twins that develop from two fertilized ova and who are thus as closely related as brothers and sisters in general; fraternal Dizygotic (DZ) Twins
The tendency for parents to place children in environments that are consistent with their own preferences or of children to place themselves in such environments Genetic-Environmental Correlation
Choosing environments that allow individuals to develop inherited potentials or preferences Niche-Picking
The fact that children's development reflects continuing bidirectional exchanges between their genetic heritage and the environments in which they find themselves or place themselves Epigenesis
A specialized cell of the nervous system that transmits messages Neuron
Cells that nourish neurons, remove waste products from the nervous system, and help synchronize the messages sent by neurons Glia
Rootlike structures, attached to the cell body of a neuron, that receive impulses from other neurons Dendrites
A long, thin part of a neuron that transmits impulses to other neurons, an organ, or muscle from branching structures called terminal buttons Axon
A fatty substance that encases and insulates axons, facilitating transmission of neural impulses Myelin
Neurons that transmit messages from sensory receptors to the spinal cord and brain; also called sensory neurons Afferent Neurons
Neurons that transmit messages from the brain or spinal cord to muscles and glands; also called motor neurons Efferent Neurons
The electrochemical discharge of a nerve cell, or neuron Neural Impulse
To ready a neuron for firing by creating an internal negative charge in relation to the body fluid outside the cell membrane Polarize
The electrical potential across the neural membrane when it is not responding to ther neurons Resting Potential
To reduce the resting potential of a cell membrane from about -70 millivolts toward zero Depolarize
The electrical impulse that provides the basis for the conduction of a neural impulse along an axon of a neuron Action Potential
The fact that a neuron fires an impulse of the same strength whenever its action potential is triggered All-or-None Principle
A phase following firing during which a neuron is less sensitive to messages from other neurons and will not fire Refractory Period
A junction between the axon terminals of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another neuron Synapse
Chemical substances involved in the transmission of neural impulses from one neuron to another Neurotransmitters
A location on a dendrite of a receiving neuron tailored to receive a neurotransmitter Receptor Site
A neurotransmitter that controls muscle contractions Acetylcholine (ACh)
A part of the limbic system of the brain that is involved in memory formation Hippocampus
A neurotransmitter that is involved in Parkinson's disease and that appears to play a role in schizophrenia Dopamine
A neurotransmitter whose action is similar to that of the hormone epinephrine and that may play a role in depression Norepinephrine
a neurotransmitter, deficiencies of which have been linked to affective disorders, anxiety, and insomnia Serotonin
An inhibitory neurotransmitter that apparently helps calm anxiety Gamma-aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
Neurotransmitters that are composed of amino acids and that are functionally similar to morphine Endorphins
A bundle of axons from many neurons Nerve
The brain and spinal cord Central Nervous System
The part of the nervous system consisting of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system Peripheral Nervous System
The division of the peripheral nervous system that connects the central nervous system with sensory receptors, skeletal muscles, and the surface of body Somatic Nervous System
The division of the peripheral nervous system that regulates glands and activities such as heartbeat, respiration, digestion, and dilation of the pupils Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
The branch of the ANS that is most active during emotional responses such as fear and anxiety, that spend the body's reserves of energy Sympathetic
The branch of the ANS that is most active during processes such as digestion that restore the body's reserves of energy Parasympathetic
A column of nerves within the spine that transmits messages from sensory receptors to the brain and from the brain to muscles and glands Spinal Cords
A simple, unlearned response to a stimulus that may involve only two neurons Spinal Reflex
A neuron that transmits a neural impulse from a sensory neuron to a motor neuron Interneuron
In the spinal cord, the grayish neurons and neural segments that are involved in spinal reflexes Gray Matter
In the spinal cord, axon bundles that carry messages from and to the brain White Matter
An injury that results in impaired behavior or loss of a function Lesion
An oblong area of the hindbrain involved in regulation of heartbeat and respiration Medulla
A structure of the hindbrain involved in breathing, attention, sleep, and dreams Pons
A part of the hindbrain involved in muscle coordination and balance Cerebellum
A part of the brain involved in attention, sleep, and arousal Reticular Activation System (RAS)
An area near the center of the brain involved in the relay of sensory information to the cortex and in the functions of sleep and attention Thalamus
A bundle of nuclei below the thalamus involved in body temperature, motivation, and emotion Hypothalamus
A group of structures involved in memory, motivation, and emotion that forms a fringe along the inner edge of the cerebrum Limbic System
A part of the limbic system that apparently facilitates stereotypical aggressive responses Amygdala
The large mass of the forebrain, which consists of two hemispheres Cerebrum
The wrinkled surface area (gray matter) of the cerebrum Cerebral Cortex
A thick fiber bundel that connects the hemispheres of the cortex Corpus Callosum
The lobe of the cerebral cortex that lies in front of the central fissure Frontal Lobe
The lobe that lies just behind the central fissure Parietal Lobe
The lobe that lies below the lateral fissure, near the temples of the head Temporal Lobe
The lobe that lies behind and below the parietal lobe and behind the temporal lobe Occipital Lobe
The section of cortex in which sensory stimulation is projected; it lies just behind the central fissure in the parietal lobe Somatosensory Cortex
The section of cortex that lies in the frontal lobe, just across the central fissure from the sensory cortex; neural impulses in the motor cortex are linked to muscular responses throughout the body Motor Cortex
A disruption in the ability to understand or produce language Aphasia
A language disorder characterized by difficulty comprehending the meaning of spoken language Wernicke's Aphasia
A language disorder characterized by slow, laborious speech Broca's Aphasia
Temporary disturbances of brain functions that involve sudden neural discharges Epilepsy
An organ that secretes one or more chemical substances such as hormones, saliva, or milk Gland
The body's system of ductless glands that secrete hormones and release them directly into the bloodstream Endocrine System
A substance secreted by an endocrine gland that regulates various body functions Hormone
The gland that secretes growth hormone, prolactin, antidiuretic hormone, and other hormones Pituitary Gland
A pituitary hormone that regulates growth Growth Hormone
A pituitary hormone that regulates production of milk and, in lower animals, maternal behavior Prolactin
A pituitary hormone that conserves body fluids by increasing reabsorption of urine and is connected with paternal behavior in some mammals; also called vasopressin Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
A pituitary hormone that stimulates labor and lactation Oxytocin
A pineal hormone that helps regulate the sleep-wake cycle and may affect the onset of puberty Melatonin
The thyroid hormone that increases metabolic rate Thyroxin
Steroids produced by the adrenal cortex that regulate carbohydrate metabolism and increase resistance to stress by fighting inflammation and allergice reactions; also called cortical steroids Corticosteroids
A hormone produced by the adrenal medulla that stimulates sympathetic ANS activity; also called adrenaline Epinephrine
A male sex hormone produced by the testes that promotes growth of male sexual characteristics and sperm Testosterone
A generic term for several female sex hormones that promote growth of female sex characteristics and regulate the menstrual cycle Estrogen
A female sex hormone that promotes growth of the sex organs and helps maintain pregnancy Progesterone
Created by: Vanity
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